Geschichte – History

ICTY Skandale: Rehabilitierung von Milošević? Serbia offers Mladic’s medical treatment in Belgrade

Viel zu lange in Untersuchungshaft, wo man erst nach Festnahme versuchte, etwas zu konstruieren, was ein Weltweiter Skandal ist.

Serbia offers Mladic’s medical treatment in Belgrade

Serbia offers Mladic's medical treatment in Belgrade
Nela Kuburovic, Serbian justice minister, has sent a letter to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) demanding „providing all adequate medical preconditions for treatment in Serbia“ of ex-General Ratko Mladic.Ratko Mladic is a former Bosnian Serb military leader accused of committing war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide by the ICTY. He was extradited to The Hague in 2011. His trial formally began in The Hague in 2012.

„The Ministry of Justice will uphold the proposal of defender that Ratko Mladic should get, if needed, provisional release for the purpose of medical treatment in Serbia“, the sources from ministry told Serbian media on Wednesday.

The Ministry explained that the government would provide its guarantees to the Tribunal „required in such cases“ for every Serbian citizen, in accordance with the law and legal procedures. The guarantees for Mladic have been demanded from Serbian government by the former war leader’s family. Darko Mladic, the general’s son, confirmed this information for Srna news agency.

Father’s health condition is bad, and it deteriorates; therefore, we have urgently required guarantees for his transfer to Belgrade“, Mladic said./IBNA

Rehabilitierung von Milošević?

Nach dem Urteil gegen Radovan Karadžić könnte der im Gefängnis verstorbene jugoslawische Präsident, der als „Schlächter des Balkans“ bezeichnet wurde, neu bewertet werden

„Srebrenica“ wurde von Izetbegovic und Clinton inszeniert, um die islamistischen Terroristen, die mindestens genauso sadistisch wie der IS Völkermord an Christen verübten, als „Opfer“ darzustellen und einen Vorwand für NATO-Luftangriffe zu Gunsten der islamistischen Terroristen zu schaffen. Wie bei den NATO-Angriffskriegen gegen Libyen und Syrien geht es bei solchen PSYOP darum, der eigenen Bevölkerung die Unterstützung islamistischer Terroristen schmackhaft zu machen.

„Srebrenica Planned in Washington and Sarajevo“
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i1a-_LzxDyE

„Am 18. Juli 1995, eine Woche nach der Eroberung von Srebrenica durch
das serbische Militär, wußte die New York Times bereits, daß
„zwischen drei und vier Tausend bosnische Muslime, die nach dem Fall
von Srebrenica von Vertretern der Vereinten Nationen als vermißt
registriert waren, sich einen Weg durch die feindlichen Linien auf
das Territorium der bosnischen Regierung gebahnt haben.“
http://www.arbeiterfotografie.com/galerie/kein-krieg/hintergrund/index-srebrenica-0004.html

„Self-Inflicted Atrocities“
http://web.archive.org/web/20110204070824/http://rpc.senate.gov/releases/1997/iran.htm

„Canadian (UN) soldier testimonies from book : The Sharp End“

Bosnians murdered their own people in well-staged attacks for PR
reasons“
http://web.archive.org/web/20021203100614/http://www.balkanpeace.org/wcs/wct/wctu/wctu02.shtml

„„Bin Laden in Sarajevo“

Das schmutzige Bündnis
Höhepunkt der Zusammenarbeit der USA mit den Mudschaheddin war eine
gemeinsame Offensive Ende August/Anfang September 1995. Zwei Wochen
flogen US-amerikanische Bomber und Jagdflieger Angriffe auf serbische
Stellungen und Gebiete, mehrere hundert serbische Zivilisten wurden
getötet. Parallel zu den Bombardierungen begann eine Bodenoffensive
der verbündeten muslimischen und kroatischen Verbände. Am Berg Ozren
in der Nähe von Sarajevo, wo sich serbische Infanterie eingegraben
hatte, fanden die schlimmsten Kämpfe statt. »Die Amerikaner und die
Alliierten bildeten die Vorhut für die muslimische Infanterie. Zuerst
wurden die Serben aus der Luft angegriffen, dann hat die muslimische
Infanterie mit Tausenden von Mudschaheddin, darunter auch die
Angehörigen der (Brigade) Mudschaheddin, den zahlenmäßig weitaus
unterlegenen Serben den Garaus gemacht«, berichtete die
bosnisch-serbische Zeitung Glas“
http://web.archive.org/web/20041016113536/http://www.jungewelt.de/2004/09-11/003.php

„Osamagate“
http://www.heise.de/tp/artikel/9/9768/1.html

„The Hidden Army Of Islam in Europe“
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3Sp-aSWhqs

„Wahabiten in Bosnien“
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SHCPVGu0GQo&t=55

Nasir Oric:
„We killed 114 Serbs there.“
http://emperors-clothes.com/analysis/oric.htm

Aus dem bosnischen Magazin „Slobodna Bosna“ von 2001:
„Auf einem dieser Fotos schärft ein dunkelhäutiger Mudschahed das
Hackbeil, mit dem der Gefangene später getötet werden wird. Die Leute
aus dem Hinrichtungskommando fotografierten die Hinrichtungen nicht
nur, sie filmten sie auch und stellten damit Propagandamaterial für
ausländische Geldgeber her. Eine Kopie des Bandes mit der rituellen
Schlächterei wurde später als Geschenk an Präsident Alija Izetbegovic
geschickt. Gefangene wurden in einem Schafstall gehalten und zum
Zeitvertreib getötet. Man gab ihnen tagelang kein Essen und kein
Wasser, so daß sie vor Erschöpfung halluzinierten. Man gab den
Gefangenen Messer und befahl ihnen, sich gegenseitig umzubringen.
›Wenn du ihn nicht tötest, töte ich dich‹, sagten die Mudschaheddin
den halb wahnsinnigen Männer, die dann aufeinander einstachen. Wenn
sie verwundet zu Boden gingen, wurden sie von den Mudschaheddin mit
Beil oder Kettensäge enthauptet, und die Überlebenden wurden
gezwungen, die abgeschnittenen Köpfe zu küssen, die man später an
Baumstümpfe nagelte … Es ist nicht schwierig, Kopien dieser Videos
zu bekommen. Man konnte die Bänder im Videoladen im Kulturhaus in
Zavidovici kaufen.“

18+ Fotos:
https://web.archive.org/web/20070711144037/http://www.rs-icty.org/galleryphotos%20eng.htm

Auch Moslems, die keinen Gottesstaat wollten, wurden von den Terroristen bestialisch abgeschlachtet:
„“Kill, rape, destroy”

attack on Fikret Abdic and the Republic of Srpska Military.

Covic said that one woman that was raped several times and suffered
more than 200 knife cuts on her body, adding that members of the 505
brigade carved their emblem into her body.“
https://web.archive.org/web/20071207225518/http://www.b92.net/eng/news/globe-article.php?yyyy=2006&mm=09&dd=06&nav_category=123&nav_id=36557

Ziel des Genozids an Christen war die Errichtung eines islamischen Gottesstaates mitten in Europa. Izetbegovic in seinem Buch:
„… The first and foremost of such conclusions is surely the one on
the incompatibility of Islam and non-Islamic systems. There can be no
peace or coexistence between the „Islamic faith“ and non- Islamic
societies and political institutions. … Islam clearly excludes the
right and possibility of activity of any strange ideology on its own
turf. Therefore, there is no question of any laicistic principles,
and the state should be an expression and should support the moral
concepts of the religion. …“
„… the Islamic movement should and must start taking over the
power as soon as it is morally and numerically strong enough to not
only overthrow the existing non-Islamic, but also to build up a new
Islamic authority. …“
http://web.archive.org/web/20030402155832/http://www.balkan-archive.org.yu/kosta/licnosti/izetbegovic.2.html

„Diese Islamisierung wurde selbst vom ersten Oberbefehlshaber der
Armee, Sefer Halilovic, kritisiert. Nach seinem erzwungenen Rücktritt
1993 sagte er über Izetbegovic: „Sein Konzept ist, einen ethnisch
reinen Staat mit einer Bevölkerung von zwei Millionen zu schaffen …
Izetbegovic will im Prinzip einen feudalen muslimischen Staat.“
…“
in „Wie der Dschihad nach Europa kam: Gotteskrieger und Geheimdienste
auf dem Balkan“ (Seite 60)
http://books.google.de/books?id=0DNpAAAAMAAJ

Wer angesichts dessen noch immer die dreisten Lügen der islamistischen Terroristen für die Wahrheit hält, ist hoffnungslos naiv.

„Srebrenica“ wurde von Izetbegovic und Clinton inszeniert, um die islamistischen Terroristen, die mindestens genauso sadistisch wie der IS Völkermord an Christen verübten, als „Opfer“ darzustellen und einen Vorwand für NATO-Luftangriffe zu Gunsten der islamistischen Terroristen zu schaffen. Wie bei den NATO-Angriffskriegen gegen Libyen und Syrien geht es bei solchen PSYOP darum, der eigenen Bevölkerung die Unterstützung islamistischer Terroristen schmackhaft zu machen.

„Srebrenica Planned in Washington and Sarajevo“

„Am 18. Juli 1995, eine Woche nach der Eroberung von Srebrenica durch
das serbische Militär, wußte die New York Times bereits, daß
„zwischen drei und vier Tausend bosnische Muslime, die nach dem Fall
von Srebrenica von Vertretern der Vereinten Nationen als vermißt
registriert waren, sich einen Weg durch die feindlichen Linien auf
das Territorium der bosnischen Regierung gebahnt haben.“
http://www.arbeiterfotografie.com/galerie/kein-krieg/hintergrund/index-srebrenica-0004.html

„Self-Inflicted Atrocities“
http://web.archive.org/web/20110204070824/http://rpc.senate.gov/releases/1997/iran.htm

„Canadian (UN) soldier testimonies from book : The Sharp End“

Bosnians murdered their own people in well-staged attacks for PR
reasons“
http://web.archive.org/web/20021203100614/http://www.balkanpeace.org/wcs/wct/wctu/wctu02.shtml

„„Bin Laden in Sarajevo“

Das schmutzige Bündnis
Höhepunkt der Zusammenarbeit der USA mit den Mudschaheddin war eine
gemeinsame Offensive Ende August/Anfang September 1995. Zwei Wochen
flogen US-amerikanische Bomber und Jagdflieger Angriffe auf serbische
Stellungen und Gebiete, mehrere hundert serbische Zivilisten wurden
getötet. Parallel zu den Bombardierungen begann eine Bodenoffensive
der verbündeten muslimischen und kroatischen Verbände. Am Berg Ozren
in der Nähe von Sarajevo, wo sich serbische Infanterie eingegraben
hatte, fanden die schlimmsten Kämpfe statt. »Die Amerikaner und die
Alliierten bildeten die Vorhut für die muslimische Infanterie. Zuerst
wurden die Serben aus der Luft angegriffen, dann hat die muslimische
Infanterie mit Tausenden von Mudschaheddin, darunter auch die
Angehörigen der (Brigade) Mudschaheddin, den zahlenmäßig weitaus
unterlegenen Serben den Garaus gemacht«, berichtete die
bosnisch-serbische Zeitung Glas“
http://web.archive.org/web/20041016113536/http://www.jungewelt.de/2004/09-11/003.php

„Osamagate“
http://www.heise.de/tp/artikel/9/9768/1.html

No News: USA, Berlin, NATO: Bosnian Late President Accused of Fostering Terrorism

Bosnian Late President Accused of Fostering Terrorism

30 Aug 17The Croatian MP and son of the late President Franjo Tudjman has accused Bosnia’s former President, Alija Izetbegovic, of helping to lay the foundations for Islamic terrorism.

Sven Milekic
BIRN

Zagreb

Isis militia.

In an interview for the Croatian weekly Globus on Wednesday, an MP from the governing Croatian Democratic Union, HDZ, Miroslav Tudjman, blamed Bosnia’s former President, Alija Izetbegovic, for encouraging the birth of Islamic terrorism in the 1990s.

“What is happening now in Europe is what happened in BiH in the 1990s. It was the beginning of today’s Islamic terrorism. Fifty ritual decapitations took place [during the Bosnian war of the 1990s]. The brigades of the Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina were labelled ‚Muslim‘ and had Arabic insignia and went into battle with the chant ‘Allahu Akbar,’” Tudjman told Globus, presenting his book „The other side of the Rubikon – the political strategy of Alija Izetbegovic“.

Tudjman’s father, independent Croatia’s first president, Franjo Tudjman, was well known for perceiving the war in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995 as a “clash of civilisations”.

His views were shaped clearly by the influential book of that name written by American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington.

Croatia’s current President, Kolinda Grabar Kitarovic, also recently accused Bosnia – where about half the population is Muslim – of fostering Islamist radicals.

She told a scientific conference in Neum, Bosnia, in March claimed there was a “growing problem” of Islamic radicalisation in Bosnia

This and previous statements by her on this issue drew a rebuttal from, among others, Bosnia’s Security Minister, Dragan Mektic.

Adding to the furor, last week, Austrian Foreign Minister Sebastian Kurz claimed that women in Bosnia [and in mainly Muslim Kosovo] were now being paid to wear full veils. The claim drew an indignant response from political and religious leaders in Bosnia.

However, the Czech President, Milos Zeman, weighed in on the same issue on Monday, saying he feared that ISIS fighters could retreat from Syria and Iraq to Bosnia and create a terrorist base there.

He said this could be “firstly because of its national structure [because of its religious demography], and also judging by the black Daesh [ISIS] flags raised in a number of Bosnian cities and villages”.

http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/croatian-mp-blames-alija-izetbegovic-for-islamic-terrorism–08-30-2017?utm_source=Balkan+Insight+Newsletters&utm_campaign=7cb5828453-BI_DAILY&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_4027db42dc-7cb5828453-308281289

 

/en/file/show//Images/Images.New/Places/Sarajevo/Suspected taken to interogation by SIPA. Photo N1 video screenshot 660.jpg

Bosnia’s State Agency for Investigation and Protection, SIPA, arrested a person on Wednesday, suspected of potential connections with Islamic fighters in Syria and Iraq.

Full Article

Robert Baer, Bill Waugh: After April 6, 1992: CIA Paramilitary Fights in Bosnia: Albanian Narco-Terrorism

CIA paramilitary contractor Billy Waugh fights in Bosnia. Details of his actions, the other members of his team, and the actual operations are unknown, but in his 2004 autobiography Waugh will say, “I saw combat in Bosnia and Kosovo, conducting operations I cannot discuss.” [Waugh and Keown, 2004, pp. 307] This may occur during the Bosnian Civil War, at which time no US troops are officially involved in combat in Bosnia. [Nato Review, 9/2005] Alternatively, according to Time magazine, during the mid and late 1990s CIA paramilitaries hunt Bosnian Serb leaders Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic, so Waugh may be part of this operation. [Time, 2/3/2003] Waugh is a covert operations legend—his career began in Vietnam and will end in Afghanistan in 2002, by which time he is in his 70s. [Waugh and Keown, 2004]

According to a report in Jane’s Intelligence Review, Albanian narco-terrorism, gun-running, and smuggling organizations are becoming a dominant economic, political, and military force in the Balkans. Jane’s expresses the concern that if left unchecked, the Albanian mafia will become powerful enough to control one or more states in the region. Albanian President Sali Berisha “is now widely suspected of tolerating and even directly profiting from drug-trafficking for wider political-economic reasons, namely the financing of secessionist political parties and other groupings in Kosovo and Macedonia.” [Jane’s Intelligence Review, 2/1/1995]

Robert Gelbard, America’s special envoy to Bosnia, says the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) is an Islamic terrorist organization. [BBC, 6/28/1998] “We condemn very strongly terrorist actions in Kosovo. The UCK [KLA] is, without any question, a terrorist group.” [Agence France-Presse, 4/1999] “I know a terrorist when I see one and these men are terrorists,” he says. [BBC, 6/28/1998]

Entity Tags: Kosovo Liberation Army

Timeline Tags: Complete 911 Timeline, Kosovar Albanian Struggle

An unnamed European intelligence agency secretly reports that al-Qaeda has provided financial support for the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). Documents found on a KLA militant further reveal that he has been smuggling combatants into Kosovo, mostly Saudis with Albanian passports. The report further notes that the KLA is largely financed by drug trafficking, bringing drugs from Afghanistan into Europe with the blessing of the Taliban. [Jacquard, 2002, pp. 71-72]

Alles gut bekannt durch Robert Baer in 2002, von den Politik Schranzen, den gekauften und korrupten Medien ignoriert.

Ex-CIA-Agent Robert Baer: “Sie gaben uns Millionen, um Jugoslawien zu zerstückeln”

Schlagwörter

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Britic, ist ein per Print, Online und E-Mail veröffentlichtes Magazin, das 2008 gegründet wurde. Das Magazin wird von Serben in Großbritannien hergestellt, um ein Forum für alle Serben in Großbritannien zu schaffen, mit besonderem Interesse an british geboren Serben, daher der Name.

Während seiner Promotion-Tour in Quebec zu den kommenden Buch “Geheimnisse des Weißen Hauses” führte das Magazin am 26.11.2015 ein Interview mit dem ehemaligen CIA-Agenten Robert Baer, das teleherzog auf seiner  facebook -Seite übersetzt hat.

Es braucht nicht viel Fantasie, Baers Erklärungen dazu, was in Jugoslawien tatsächlich ablief, auf die Ukraine und andere Länder zu übertragen, in denen die USA “Regimechange” betreiben. Welche “Journalisten” heute auf der Lohnliste der CIA stehen, kann man dagegen nur mutmaßen.

“Sie gaben uns Millionen,
um Jugoslawien zu zerstückeln”

Robert “Bob” Booker Baer (* 1. Juli 1952 in Los Angeles) ist ein ehemaliger Mitarbeiter des US-amerikanischen Nachrichtendienstes CIA. Er ist Autor mehrerer Bücher, in denen er seine Erfahrungen im Dienst der CIA dokumentierte, und gilt heute als Experte für den Nahen Osten. Baer trat 1976 in die CIA ein, wo er als Operationsleiter arbeitete. Einsatzorte während seiner Arbeit waren der Nordirak, Duschanbe, Rabat, Beirut, Khartum, Paris und Neu-Delhi. Seine Aufgabe bestand in der Infiltrierung von Organisationen wie Hisbollah und Al-Qaida. In seinem 2002 erschienenen Bestseller See no Evil (dt. Der Niedergang der CIA) dokumentierte Baer seine während der Arbeit für die CIA gesammelten Erfahrungen. Baers Werke See No Evil und Sleeping with the Devil lieferten die Vorlage für den 2005 fertiggestellten Film Syriana. Die Person des Film-Charakters Bob Barnes (gespielt von George Clooney) wurde Robert Baer nachempfunden. 2005 war er Co-Autor und Präsentator des Dokumentarfilms The Cult of the Suicide Bomber, der im Jahr darauf für den Emmy nominiert wurde.
> Wo und wann war Ihr erster Job in Jugoslawien?

Baer: Ich kam mit dem Hubschrauber mit drei Agenten.
Wir landeten am 12. Januar 1991 in Sarajevo. Unsere Aufgabe
war es, ein Auge auf mutmaßliche Terroristen serbischer Nationalität
zu werfen, von denen war zu erwarten, das sie Sarajevo angreifen
könnten.

> Welche “Terroristen” kamen in Frage, und warum sollten sie diese
Angriffe durchführen?

Baer: Sie gaben uns Daten zu einer Gruppe namens “Supreme Serbia”
Detaillierte Pläne, Serie von Bombenanschlägen auf die wichtigsten
Gebäude in Sarajevo gegen Bosniens Ehrgeiz, das ehemaligen
Jugoslawien zu verlassen.

> Hat diese Gruppe überhaupt existiert und was genau sollten Sie
in Sarajevo unter CIA-Befehl tun?

Baer: Keine solche Gruppe hat jemals existiert! Unser Hauptquartier
hat uns belogen. Unsere Mission war es, Alarm- und Panik unter den
Politikern in Bosnien zu verbreiten, einfach denen in den Kopf die Idee
pflanzen, dass Serben angreifen würden.

>Anhebung der Hysterie, wenn es die Gruppe eindeutig nicht gäbe?
Wie und wo sollte die Mission dann enden ?

Baer: Für mich endete die nach zwei Wochen, da landete ich einem
neuen Job in Slowenien. Die Operation dauerte einen Monat und
hatte den Namen “Istina” d.h. “Wahrheit” obwohl es alles andere war!

> Warum sind Sie nach Slowenien gereist?

Baer: Ich erhielt Anweisungen, Slowenien bereit zu machen, die
Unabhängigkeit zu erklären. Man hatte uns viel Geld gegeben,
ein paar Millionen Dollar, um verschiedene NGOs, Oppositionsparteien
und verschiedene Politiker zu finanzieren, die Hass entzünden.

> Hatten Sie eine Meinung über die CIA-Propaganda
und was hatten Ihre Kollegen gedacht?

Baer: Natürlich stellt niemand in einer CIA-Mission offene Fragen,
vor allem, wenn wir alle nervös und anfällig für Paranoia waren! Viele
CIA-Agenten und hohe Offiziere verschwanden einfach, weil sie sich
weigerten, Propaganda gegen Serben in Jugoslawien durchzuführen.
Persönlich war ich von der Dosis der Lügen schockiert, was da aus
unseren Agenturen kam und Politiker fütterte! Viele CIA-Agenten
wurden auch auf diese Propaganda eingestellt, ohne zu wissen, was
sie tun. Jeder wusste, dass sei nur ein Bruchteil der Geschichte, und
nur der, der die ganze Geschichte kannte, konnte den Hintergrund sehen.

> So gab es nur Propaganda gegen die Serben?

Baer: Ja und Nein. Das Ziel der Propaganda war, die Republiken teilen,
so dass sie aus dem Mutterland Jugoslawien brechen würden. Wir
mussten einen Sündenbock finden, der für alles verantwortlich gemacht
werden würde. Jemand, der für den Krieg und Gewalt verantwortlich sei.
Serbien wurde ausgewählt, weil sie in gewisser Weise der Nachfolger
Jugoslawiens waren.

> Können Sie die Politiker im ehemaligen Jugoslawien nennen, die von
der CIA bezahlt wurden?

Baer: Ja, obwohl es etwas heikel ist > Stipe Mesic, Franjo Tudjman,
Alija Izetbegovic, viele Berater und Mitglieder der Regierung
Jugoslawiens wurden bezahlt, auch waren es serbische Generäle,
Journalisten und sogar einige Militäreinheiten. Radovan Karadzic
wurde für eine Weile bezahlt, aber diese Hilfe wurde dann gestoppt,
als er merkte, er würde getötet und wegen Kriegsverbrechen in
Bosnien dann später von der amerikanischen Regierung gerichtet.

> Sie erwähnten, dass die Medien kontrolliert und finanziert werden,
wie genau das passiert?

Baer: Dies ist bereits bekannt , es waren einige CIA-Agenten für das
Schreiben der offiziellen Erklärungen verantwortlich, dass haben dann
die Sprecher in den Nachrichten abgelesen. Natürlich sind die
Nachrichten-Moderatoren blind für das, bekamen die Nachrichten von
ihrem Chef, und es war jemand von unseren Männern. Jeder hatte die
gleiche Mission: zu Hass, Nationalismus und die Unterschiede zwischen
den Menschen durch das Fernsehen aufzustacheln.

> Wir alle wissen, von Srebrenica, können Sie mehr dazu sagen?

Baer: Ja! Im Jahr 1992 war ich wieder in Bosnien, aber dieses Mal
wollten wir eigentlich militärische Einheiten trainieren, um Bosnien,
einen neuen Staat, der gerade die Unabhängigkeit erklärt hatte,
zu vertreten. Srebrenica ist eine übertriebene Geschichte und leider
wurden viele Menschen manipuliert. Die Zahl der Opfer ist die gleiche
wie die Anzahl der Serben und anderer Getöteten, Srebrenica war
politisches Marketing. Mein Chef, der früher US-Senator war, betonte
immer wieder, dass es bald eine Art von Betrug in Bosnien geben würde.
Einen Monat vor dem angeblichen Völkermord in Srebrenica, sagte er
mir, dass die Stadt Schlagzeilen auf der ganzen Welt machen würde.
Als ich fragte, warum, sagte er, du wirst es sehen. Die neue bosnische
Armee hatte den Auftrag, Häuser und Zivilisten anzugreifen. Das waren
natürlich Einwohner von Srebrenica. Im selben Moment, griffen Serben
von der anderen Seite an. Wahrscheinlich hatte jemand gezahlt,
um siedazu zu bewegen!

> Und wer hat nun den Völkermord in Srebrenica gemacht?

Baer: Für Srebrenica sollten Bosnier, Serben + Amerikaner
verantwortlich gemacht werden – das sind wir! Aber in der Tat wurde das
alles auf die Serben als Verantwortliche abgeschoben. Leider sind viele
der Opfer Muslime, Serben und andere Nationalitäten. Vor ein paar
Jahren sagte ein Freund von mir, ein ehemaliger CIA-Agent und jetzt
beim IWF, dass Srebrenica das Produkt der Vereinbarung zwischen der
US-Regierung und den Politiker in Bosnien sei. Die Stadt Srebrenica
wurde geopfert, um ein Motiv zu haben, um die Serben für ihre
angeblichen Verbrechen von Amerika aus anzugreifen.

> Letztlich, warum brach Jugoslawien zusammen und warum hat
Ihre Regierung das getan?

Baer: Es ist alles sehr klar, jetzt sind die Menschen, die den Krieg
angestiftet und diktiert hatten, die Besitzer der Unternehmen, die
verschiedene mineralischen Ressourcen nutzen und dergleichen!
Und die Produkte gehen nach Deutschland und Amerika … sie sind
die Gewinner! Sie hatten zu gegebener Zeit aufgekauft, das ist die
ganze Geschichte mit dem gesamten Balkan!

> Du warst noch nie im Kosovo als CIA-Agent, aber wussten Sie
dass die dort keinen Druck aus Amerika fühlen?

Baer: Natürlich! Kosovo wurde aus zwei Gründen gemacht:
1. Wegen der mineralischen und natürlichen Ressourcen!
und 2. ist Kosovo ein Militärstützpunkt der NATO! Im Herzen Europas
ist ihre größte Militärbasis.

> Haben Sie eine Nachricht für Menschen im ehemaligen Jugoslawien?

Baer: Ich habe. Vergiss die Vergangenheit, es war inszeniert und falsch.
Sie manipuliert dich, sie bekamen, was sie wollten, und es ist dumm,
dass Sie immer noch einander hassen, sie müssen zeigen, dass Sie
stärker sind und Sie erkennen, welche Leute dies geschaffen haben!
Ich will mich aufrichtig entschuldigen! Deshalb habe ich schon für eine
lange Zeit die Geheimnisse der CIA und dem Weißen Haus offenbart!

https://propagandaschau.wordpress.com/2015/12/04/ex-cia-agent-robert-baer-siegaben-uns-millionen-um-jugoslawien-zu-zerstueckeln/

Der verbrecherische Angriffskrieg gegen Jugoslawien:
Sean Gervasi – Warum ist die NATO in Jugoslawien?
Diana Johnstone – Kollektive Schuld und kollektive Unschuld
George Szamuely – US-Scheinheiligkeit und Marionettentribunale
Michel Chossudovsky – Die Aufsplitterung Jugoslawiens und Rekolonialisierung Bosniens

Der Niedergang der CIA

Robert Baer: Der Niedergang der CIA

Autor :  Michael Kolkmann
E-mail: redaktion@e-politik.de
Artikel vom: 10.07.2002

Der Amerikaner Robert Baer, über 20 Jahre in den Diensten der CIA, hat mit seinem früheren Arbeitgeber abgerechnet. Michael Kolkmann hat seinen Erfahrungsbericht gelesen.

 

Die Irritation war groß, als Mitte Mai bekannt wurde, dass die amerikanische Regierung bereits vor dem 11. September 2001 mehrere Hinweise auf in den USA geplanten Terroranschläge hatte. Für den langjährigen CIA-Agenten Robert Baer kommt dies nicht überraschend. Ähnliche Hinweise, sogar mit Datumsangaben, hatte es auch vor der Bombardierung der amerikanischen Botschaft in Beirut im Jahre 1983 gegeben. Bei dem Anschlag kamen 63 Menschen ums Leben, und Robert Baer, gerade in Beirut stationiert, machte es sich zur Lebensaufgabe, die Attentäter und Hintermänner dieses Anschlags ausfindig zu machen.

Ein Lebensbericht

Ein Dutzend Jahre sollte vergehen, bis Baer zuverlässige Informationen zum Beiruter Anschlag besaß; nachlesen kann man die Ermittlungen in seinem Buch „See No Evil“, das seit mehreren Wochen auf den amerikanischen Bestsellerlisten steht und nun unter dem Titel „Der Niedergang der CIA“ auf deutsch erschienen ist. Zugleich ist das Buch eine Generalabrechnung mit der heutigen CIA. Baer möchte mit seinem Buch, wie er im Prolog deutlich macht, beschreiben, „was aus der CIA geworden ist und was nun getan werden muss“. Sein Vorwurf wiegt schwer: „Die CIA wurde durch political correctness systematisch zerstört, durch Kleinkriege zwischen Institutionen [und] durch Karrieresucht“.

Alter Hase

Baer ist jemand, der weiß, wovon er spricht: 21 Jahre hat er für die CIA gearbeitet, von Mitte der siebziger bis Mitte der neunziger Jahre – zwei Jahrzehnte, die Baer zum großen Teil als foot soldier der Anti-Terror-Abteilung der CIA in den Krisengebieten dieser Welt verbringt: Sudan, Marokko, Irak und immer wieder Beirut. Der erwähnte Anschlag auf die Botschaft in Beirut 1983, der Anschlag auf die Kaserne der amerikanischen Marines in Beirut 1984, der Abschuss des PanAm-Flugs 103 über Lockerbie 1988, ein geplanter Aufstand gegen Saddam Hussein im Irak – überall wird Baers Anti-Terror-Abteilung aktiv.

Zurück in Washington

Ernüchterung macht sich bei Baer breit, als er Mitte der neunziger Jahre nach Washington zurück beordert wird, in eine Stadt, die sich samt ihrer politischen Kultur in den Jahren seiner Abwesenheit stark verändert hat. Es dauert nicht lange, bis er merkt, dass er in die „neue“ CIA nicht mehr hineinpasst und seinen Hut nimmt. Parallel dazu erfährt er bei seinen Ermittlungen, die er auch nach Ausscheiden aus der CIA weiter betreibt, dass Geldwäscher, Drogen- und Waffenhändler, gegen die er ermittelt, Kaffeetermine bei Präsident Clinton erhalten und die nationale Sicherheit mehr und mehr durch wirtschaftliche Interessen kompromittiert wird.

Von der „alten“ zur „neuen“ CIA

Baer, der ein guter Erzähler ist, beklagt den Paradigmenwechsel in der Politik der CIA: „Anstatt Agenten anzuwerben und einzusetzen, verbrachten die Leute in den CIA-Büros den größten Teil ihrer Zeit damit, sich um das zu kümmern, was in Washington gerade Mode war: die Menschenrechte, die wirtschaftliche Globalisierung, den arabisch-israelischen Konflikt. Veteranen wie mir kam es vor, als ob die CIA eigentlich nur noch wenig mehr tue, als die Fahne flattern zu lassen“.

Vor allem kritisiert Baer die Technikgläubigkeit der amerikanischen Behörden. Satellitenbilder und wissenschaftliche Literatur, so klagt er an mehreren Stellen, brachten nach Ansicht der Verantwortlichen aufschlussreichere und zuverlässigere Informationen als Agenten, die direkt in den Krisengebieten operierten: „Agenten benahmen sich manchmal schlecht oder sie verursachten peinliche diplomatische Zwischenfälle. Schlimmer noch: sie passten nicht mehr in Amerikas Vorstellung von einer Welt, wie sie nach der Meinung Washingtons zu funktionieren hatte“, wie Baer sarkastisch kommentiert.

Kritischer Rundumschlag

Baer schont in seinem Buch weder sich noch seine Regierung. Misstrauen hegt er vor allem gegen den eigenen Präsidenten, egal ob er Reagan, Bush Senior oder Clinton heißt: „Die Parole in Pennsylvania Avenue Nummer 1600 schien immer zu lauten: Überstehe deine Amtszeit. Halte die Zeitungen frei von schlechten Nachrichten. Schmeiße die Nörgler raus. Kratze – möglichst tonnenweise – Geld für die nächste Wahl zusammen und überlasse es der nächsten Regierung, sich mit allem anderen herumzuschlagen. Und zu allem Übel hatte sich meine gute alte CIA entschlossen, das Spiel mitzumachen“.

Einseitige Perspektive

Baer hat ein sehr lesenswertes und mitunter spannendes Buch geschrieben. Obwohl er das Manuskript vor der Drucklegung der CIA vorlegen musste, die prompt eine Reihe von Namen, Orten und Jahreszahlen schwärzte, steckt trotzdem immer noch ausreichend Brisanz im Buch, um die Lektüre kurzweilig zu halten.

Baer ist natürlich voreingenommen, betrachtet die Ereignisse aus der Perspektive des individuellen CIA-Agenten. Dass aber auch die CIA nicht in einem luftleeren Raum, sondern – bei aller wohl notwendigen Geheimhaltung – in einem politischen System operiert, das großen Wert auf Öffentlichkeit und Transparenz legt, und dass andere Akteure dieses Systems vielleicht andere Prioritäten verfolgen (müssen), macht Baer sich nicht ausreichend klar. Bei aller Sympathie für Baers Positionen: Es wäre aufschlussreich, zum Vergleich den Bericht anderer Beteiligter zu lesen.

 

Robert Baer: „Der Niedergang der CIA. Der Enthüllungsbericht eines CIA-Agenten“,
Verlag C. Bertelsmann München 2002, 418 Seiten,
23,90 EUR,
ISBN: 3-570-00676-X.

http://e-politik.de/alt.e-politik.de/beitrag1a7a.html?Beitrag_ID=1744

Weiterführende Links:
Die Homepage der Central Intelligence Agency
Die Homepage des Verlages

Jugoslawien

Der Kosovo
Chronologie des Kosovo-Konfliktes: März 1998 bis Juli 1999

e-politik.de fasst die Monate vor, während und kurz nach den Luftschlägen der NATO gegen Serbien zusammen. Die Chronologie bietet einen kompakten Rückblick auf die politischen und militärischen Eckdaten des Kosovo-Konfliktes.

Kosovo, oder: Eine Heimat im Chaos

Es ist das Jahr der Rückkehr für die rund 170.000 kosovarischen Flüchtlinge in Deutschland. Arben Krasniqi reiste nach neun Jahren wieder ins Kosovo, um eine Unterkunft für die Eltern zu suchen, denen die Abschiebung droht. Andreas Bock hat ihn begleitet.

Balkan – Bilanz und Perspektiven
Der Balkan – ein Jahr nach dem Kosovo-Krieg

Heute stehen deutsche KFOR-Soldaten im Kosovo. Vor einem Jahr bombardierten deutsche Kampfjets serbische Ziele. Roman Maruhn zum Auftakt des e-politik.de-Brennpunktes „Balkan“.

Mafia-Staaten

Kürzlich erst schafften die USA – zumindest verbal – die „Schurkenstaaten“ ab. Lucio Caracciolo, Herausgeber der Zeitschrift liMes – Rivista Italiana di Geopolitica in Rom, macht im Adriaraum nun „Mafia-Staaten“ aus.

Die Zerstörung von Krankenhäusern war überall Militärisches Ziel der Militär Doktrin der Amerikaner, Kriegs Verbrecher pure. Hier die Fakten aus Vietnam

We Had to Destroy the Town… and the Hospital

«It became necessary to destroy the town to save it», a United States major said today. He was talking about the decision by allied commanders to bomb and shell the town [Bến Tre] regardless of civilian casualties, to rout the Vietcong». Reporter Peter Arnett, in Vietnam, February 7, 1968, verified by US Captain Michael D Miller, who was present…

Brian CLOUGHLEY | 04.12.2015

Etappenziel Syrien, Endziel Mittelmeerunion: Gescheitert.

 

Mittelmeerunion
Bild: Wikipedia

Der heute vom „Leitstaat“, dem Imperium der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika, über die üblichen Umwege (den Notstandspräsidenten von Frankreich und den Klon „Europäische Union“) erpresste Tribut von ein paar Kampfflugzeugen und 1200 Soldaten aus seiner deutschen Kolonie ist militärisch überflüssig, politisch eine symbolische Demutsgeste seiner Untergebenen (der „politischen Klasse“) und psychologisch ein weiterer Versuch der „Erniedrigung und Zerstörung“ der Berliner Republik bereits im Ansatz. Diese offizielle U.S.-Doktrin, dieses Kriegsziel, gilt angeblich gegenüber den selbst aufgerüsteten Proxy-Armeen und Todesschwadronen namens „Islamischen Staat“, etc, etc, und in Wirklichkeit gegenüber allen, die den berühmten „U.S. Interessen“ im Weg sind. Die „U.S. Interessen“ seit Kriegsausbruch seit 2001 sind Abschlachten, Ausbeuten und Ausdehnung des Imperiums. Man könnte sich nun darüber unterhalten ob das vor 2001 anders war. Zumindest hatten diese Interessen seinerzeit noch ernstzunehmende etablierte Gegner.

Mehr lesen

38 Graphiken aus geheimen NATO Berichten, über die Clan Mafia Struktur im Kosovo, organisiert, finanziert von kriminellen Verbrechern rund um das Pentagon, CIA und Co. und Bob Dole.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US Medien fordern Haftstrafen für Petraeus, Obama and Brennan und die Deutschen Berufsverbrecher wie Volker Perthes

Über die Verbrecher des Auswärtigen Amtes, des Volker Perthes und seiner lächerlichen Schallplatten Truppe des Krieges und des Mordes, spricht in der Bananenrepublik Deutschland niemand. Die sind so verblödet in Brüssel und Berlin, das man nun erst langsam merkt, das die Amerikaner Verbrecher sind und Dumme suchen, welche bei jedem Müll und Verbrechen mitmachen, was man auch in 1999 wusste, etliche Jahre zuvor über die kriminellen Machenschaften in Balkan ebenso.

Überall von Ruanda, Konga, Nigeria, Albanien hat Deutschland seine korrupten und kriminellen Finger drinnen.

UN reports `ethnic cleansing` in DR Congo
The report detailed butchery, „ethnic cleansing“ and 251 targetted killings in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
August 03, 2017

Why Petraeus, Obama And Brennan Should Face 5,000 Years In Prison

California CEO Allegedly Smuggled Rifle Scopes to Syria – Daily Beast, August 1 2017

Rasheed Al Jijakli,[the CEO of a check-cashing business who lives in Walnut,] along with three co-conspirators, allegedly transported day and night vision rifle scopes, laser boresighters used to adjust sights on firearms for accuracy when firing, flashlights, radios, a bulletproof vest, and other tactical equipment to Syrian fighters.

If Jijakli is found guilty, he could face 50 years in prison. Jijakli’s case is being prosecuted by counterintelligence and Terrorism and Export Crimes Section attorneys. An FBI investigation, in coordination with other agencies, is ongoing.

Under Trump, a Hollowed-Out Force in Syria Quickly Lost C.I.A. Backing – NY Times*, August 2, 2017

C.I.A. director, Mike Pompeo, recommended to President Trump that he shut down a four-year-old effort to arm and train Syrian rebels.

Critics in Congress had complained for years about the costs […] and reports that some of the C.I.A.-supplied weapons had ended up in the hands of a rebel group tied to Al Qaeda

In the summer of 2012, David H. Petraeus, who was then C.I.A. director, first proposed a covert program of arming and training rebels

[Mr. Obama signed] a presidential finding authorizing the C.I.A. to covertly arm and train small groups of rebels
-…
John O. Brennan, Mr. Obama’s last C.I.A. director, remained a vigorous defender of the program …

When will the FBI investigate Messrs Petraeus, Obama and Brennan? Where are the counterintelligence and Terrorism and Export Crimes Section attorneys prosecuting them? Those three men engaged in the exactly same trade as Mr. Jijakil did, but on a much larger scale. They should be punished on an equally larger scale.

 

* Note: The NYT story is largely a whitewash. It claims that the CIA paid „moderate“ FSA rebels stormed Idleb governate in 2015. In fact al-Qaeda and Ahrar al Sham were leading the assault. It says that costs of the CIA program was „more than $1 billion over the life of the program“ when CIA documents show that it was over $1 billion per year and likely much more than $5 billion in total. The story says that the program started in 2013 while the CIA has been providing arms to the Wahhabi rebels since at least fall 2011.

Posted by b at 05:15 AM | Comments (53)
Frank Schirrmacher, Chef Redakteur der FAZ, fuhr nach Syrien, schrieb einen Artikel über die reale Situation in Syrien, die vielen Lügen und verstarb im Stile (2014),der Hillary Clinton Morde plötzlich. In der Branche nennt man es Tod durch die „Israel Tablette“! Steinmeier, die EU Banditen, Angela Merkel wurden Anhänger des Bill und Hillary Clinton Mord und Verbrecher Clans.

Wie in Libyen, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Bosnien, Irak: Alles billige Lügen, welche mit korrupten Politikern, schlimmer wie Hitler und Co. verkauft werden.

EU, NATO, USA: Massenmord, Staaten Zerstörung als Politik und System

Volker Perthes SWP Terroristen Mentor, der nicht einmal Minimal Bildung hat.
Willy Wimmer über diese Leute: die verkaufen jeden Unfug als Politik.

John Bolton

Kurzmitteilung:Die „Volker Perthes“ Kopf Abschneider. Die „friends of Syria“ Terroristen Mafia und eine ehemalige Terroristen Geisel erzähltEU Sanktionen, Forderung von Flugverboten um die Verbrechen: Ultimativ in Ethnische Säuberungen umzuwandeln in einem der grossen NATO Massakern mit Kopf Abschneidern und Verbrechern.

6 Jahre Krieg und Propaganda gegen Syrien

Idiotie Verein des Verbrechens und der Lüge: Westerwelle, Hillary Clinton, Ashton.

Kurdische PKK Verbrecher Clans, erhalten in Deutschland und Österreich Demonstration Genehmigungen

PKK Demo in Frankfurt
AWO in Frankfurt, Steuer finanziert ist 100 % von Kriminellen unterwandert, welche eine Demonstration von 30.000 Kurdischen Verbrecher Clans mit PKK Fahnen am 18.3.2017 in Frankfurt finanzieren.

Frank Walter Steinmeier lebt seine kriminelle Energie aus, indem er dem Nepotismus Verbrecher Clan: Barzani ein Völkerrechts widriges Generalkonsulat in Berlin gab, damit der Drogen und Migranen Schmuggel von Kriminellen besser klappt.

General Carlos Martins Branco : «Was Srebrenica a Hoax?

«War in the Balkans» – the Memoirs of a Portugese Peacekeeper (I)

Stephen KARGANOVIC | 07.07.2017 | WORLD

«War in the Balkans» – the Memoirs of a Portugese Peacekeeper (I)

General Carlos Martins Branco is one of the most fascinating (and until quite recently also inaccessible) actors in the Srebrenica controversy. From his Zagreb vantage point as deputy head of the U.N. Protection Force (UNPROFOR) between 1994 and 1996, during the latter phase of the 1990s Yugoslav conflict as it unfolded in Croatia and Bosnian and Herzegovina, this Portuguese officer had privileged access to significant information. Confidential reports about the goings on in the field were crossing his desk. With first-hand information and further enlightened by discrete conversations with colleagues from various intelligence structures, Martins Branco was positioned ideally to learn facts which many officials would have preferred to cover up, and the media frequently ignored.

With a typically Latin emotional flair, refusing to remain silent as the «Srebrenica genocide narrative» was taking shape in the second half of the 1990s, Martins Branco published in 1998 an article provocatively entitled «Was Srebrenica a Hoax? Eyewitness Account of a Former UN Military Observer in Bosnia» In that early plunge into the toxic Srebrenica debate, Martins Branco ventured a number of critical questions concerning the notorious events in July 1995:

«One may agree or disagree with my political analysis, but one really ought to read the account of how Srebrenica fell, who are the victims whose bodies have been found so far, and why the author believes that the Serbs wanted to conquer Srebrenica and make the Bosnian Muslims flee, rather than having any intentions of butchering them. The comparison Srebrenica vs. Krajina, as well as the related media reaction by the ‚free press‘ in the West, is also rather instructive».

Shortly after that expression of skepticism about the nature of the disputed events in Srebrenica, Martins Branco practically disappeared from view. Not physically, of course. He spent several years in Florence teaching at the European University Institute and preparing his doctoral dissertation. After that, in 2007 and 2008 he was attached by his government to NATO forces in Afghanistan in the capacity of media spokesperson for the Commander. From 2008 until recently, when he retired, General Martins Branco served as deputy director of the National Defense Institute of the Portuguese armed forces.

This impressive background, to which we may add the duty of head of the Intelligence Affairs Section of EUROFOR for Bosnia, Albania, and Kosovo from 1996 to 1999, bespeaks an elite and highly trained staff officer, with first-class intelligence capabilities and powers of observation.

Intrigued by Martins Branco’s out-of-the-box analysis of Srebrenica events, shortly after the founding of our NGO «Srebrenica Historical Project» we attempted to establish communication with him to see if he would share with us some of his exceptional information and insights. Our efforts were fruitless and correspondence with the general over the years came down mostly to an exchange of non-committal courtesies. Defense teams at the ICTY in the Hague, which endeavored to obtain him as a witness on their clients’ behalf, had no better luck. However, not very long ago General Martins Branco wrote to us seeking answers to some questions concerning Srebrenica. He mentioned that in November 2016 his memoirs were published in Portugal. That volume, which he kindly made available to us, encompassed the period of his service in the Balkans. It was entitled «A Guerra nos Balcãs, jihadismo, geopolítica e desinformação» [War in the Balkans, Jihadism, Geopolitics, and Disinformation], published by Edições Colibri in Lisbon.

https://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2017/07/07/war-balkans-memoirs-portugese-peacekeeper-i.html

As already seen numerous times with high-level officials, in this case as well open expression of intimate views and public disclosure of facts regarded of a delicate nature had to wait for retirement. In General Martins  Branco’s case, the wait was worthwhile. These fascinating recollections from the Balkan war theater consist of the insights of a Portuguese officer attached to UN forces into such episodes as the merciless expulsion, accompanied by mass killing, of the Serbian population of Krajina by Croatian forces. These outrages were orchestrated with the discrete backing of the NATO alliance, for which the author indirectly happened to be working at the time. Events surrounding Srebrenica in July 0f 1995 encompass another portion of his recollections. For the moment, we will focus on the latter and Martins Branco’s perception of the background and impact of the Srebrenica situation.

Already in his introduction to the chapters of his memoirs that deal with Srebrenica, Martins Branco questions the coherence of the prevalent view that it constituted genocide:

«General Ratko Mladic had made it known that he was leaving open a corridor for withdrawal toward Tuzla. With Mladic’s approval, about 6.000 persons took advantage of that opportunity. In a report by the Dutch Foreign Ministry it is noted that, according to UN sources, by August 4 a total of 35.632 displaced persons had made it to Tuzla, of whom between 800 and 1.000 were members of Bosnia and Herzegovina armed forces. Out of that total, 17.500 had been evacuated by bus». (Page 195)

The Portuguese general then continues:

«Srebrenica was portrayed – and continues to be – as a premeditated massacre of innocent Muslim civilians. As a genocide! But was it really so? A more careful and informed assessment of those events leads me to doubt it». (Page 196)

Martins Branco goes on to raise some pointed questions, and he does so purely in the capacity of a professional soldier:

«There are various estimates of the relative strength of forces involved in the Srebrenica………….

https://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2017/07/07/war-balkans-memoirs-portugese-peacekeeper-i.html

«War in the Balkans» – the Memoirs of a Portugese Peacekeeper (II)

see Part 1

The Golden Chain list.The Golden Chain list. [Source: Public domain]In March 2002, authorities in Bosnia, Sarajevo, will raid the offices of the Benevolence International Foundation (BIF) due to suspected funding of al-Qaeda (see March 2002). The raid will uncover a handwritten list containing the name of twenty wealthy donors sympathetic to al-Qaeda. The list, referred to as “The Golden Chain,” contains both the names of the donors and the names of the recipients (but does not mention amounts given). Seven of the payments are made to Osama bin Laden. [United Press International, 2/11/2003] Most accounts will be vague on what year the Golden Chain document was written; some say 1988. [Wall Street Journal, 3/18/2003] But counterterrorism “tsar” Richard Clarke will say it dates from 1989. [US Congress, 10/22/2003] Al-Qaeda is formed in late 1988 (see August 11-20, 1988). The Wall Street Journal will later note, “The list doesn’t show any continuing support for al-Qaeda after the organization began targeting Americans, but a number of the Saudis on it have been under scrutiny by US officials as to whether they have supported terrorism in recent years.” [Wall Street Journal, 3/18/2003] The donors named include:
bullet The “Bin Laden brothers.” Their first names are not mentioned. They give money to Osama bin Laden. UPI will later point out that “the discovery of this document in Sarajevo calls into question whether al-Qaeda has received support from one of Osama’s scores of wealthy brothers.”
bullet Adel Batterjee, a wealthy Saudi businessman who is also the founder of both BIF and its predecessor, Lajnatt Al-Birr Al-Islamiah. He appears to be mentioned as a recipient three times. [United Press International, 2/11/2003] The US will declare him as a terrorist financier in 2004 (see December 21, 2004).
bullet Wael Hamza Julaidan, a Saudi millionaire and one of the founders of al-Qaeda. He is listed as a recipient. The US will declare him a terrorist financier in 2002 (see September 6, 2002).
bullet Saleh Kamel, a Saudi billionaire, and the majority shareholder of the Saudi conglomerate Dallah Albaraka. In 2003, Forbes will call him one of the richest people in the world. The list has him giving money to Batterjee.
bullet Sulaiman Abdul Aziz al-Rajhi, another Saudi billionaire. The SAAR network, which is named after him, will be raided by the FBI in 2002 (see March 20, 2002). [Emerson, 2006, pp. 400]
bullet Khalid bin Mahfouz, another Saudi billionaire. A lawyer for bin Mahfouz will later say bin Mahfouz did contribute a small amount to fund the mujaheddin in the late 1980s, but only at the behest of the US and Saudi Arabia. [Wall Street Journal, 3/18/2003]

The notes from al-Qaeda’s formation meeting. The short lines on the right side are the list of attendees.The notes from al-Qaeda’s formation meeting. The short lines on the right side are the list of attendees. [Source: CNN]Bin Laden conducts two meetings to discuss “the establishment of a new military group,” according to notes that are found later. Notes reveal the group is initially called al-Qaeda al-Askariya, which roughly translates to “the military base.” But the name soon shortens to just al-Qaeda, meaning “the base” or “the foundation.” [Associated Press, 2/19/2003; Wright, 2006, pp. 131-134] With the Soviets in the process of withdrawing from Afghanistan, it is proposed to create the new group to keep military jihad, or holy war, alive after the Soviets are gone. The notes don’t specify what the group will do exactly, but it concludes, “Initial estimate, within six months of al-Qaeda (founding), 314 brothers will be trained and ready.” In fact, al-Qaeda will remain smaller than that for years to come. Fifteen people attend these two initial meetings. [Wright, 2006, pp. 131-134] In addition to bin Laden, other attendees include:
bullet Ayman Al-Zawahiri, the head of the Egyptian militant group Islamic Jihad. [New Yorker, 9/9/2002]
bullet Mohammed Atef, a.k.a. Abu Hafs.
bullet Mamdouh Mahmud Salim, a.k.a. Abu Hajer.
bullet Jamal al-Fadl.
bullet Wael Hamza Julaidan.
bullet Mohammed Loay Bayazid, a US citizen, who is notetaker for the meetings. [Wright, 2006, pp. 131-134]
Al-Fadl will reveal details about the meetings to US investigators in 1996 (see June 1996-April 1997). Notes to the meeting will be found in Bosnia in early 2002. [New Yorker, 9/9/2002] It will take US intelligence years even to realize a group named al-Qaeda exists; the first known incidence of US intelligence being told the name will come in 1993 (see May 1993).

Abdullah Anas.Abdullah Anas. [Source: History Channel]According to author Richard Labeviere, in this year Talaat Fouad Qassem, a leader of the Egyptian militant group Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya, is designated by a leaders from different radical militant groups to head up the militant effort in Bosnia. Qassem is living in exile in Denmark and recruits the help of two Algerian militants also living in exile in Europe, Kamer Eddine Kherbane and Abdullah Anas. In future years, the three of them will coordinate all the requests for volunteers from European countries who want to fight in Bosnia. They will send about 2,000 volunteers to camps in Bosnia near the towns of Zenica and Tuzla. Kherbane will directly lead the Tuzla group. [Labeviere, 1999, pp. 73] In 1991, Kherbane will set up a charity front in Croatia that is a branch of Maktab al-Khidamat/Al-Kifah, which is closely tied to al-Qaeda (see 1991 and Early 1990s). In 1995, Qassem will be abducted in Croatia by US forces and killed in Egypt (see September 13, 1995).

Alija Izetbegovic.Alija Izetbegovic. [Source: US Defense Department / Helene C. Stikkel]Alija Izetbegovic is elected leader of Bosnia, which is still a republic within the nation of Yugoslavia. He wins the vote because Muslims have a plurality of about 40 percent in the republic. During World War II, Izetbegovic supported the Handzar divisions organized by the Nazi SS. After the war, he was sentenced to three years in prison for his wartime activities. He wrote a controversial Islamic manifesto in 1970 entitled “The Islamic Declaration.” [New York Times, 10/20/2003] In it, he called for “political revolution” and wrote, “There can be no peace or harmony between the ‘Islamic religion’ and non-Islamic social and political institutions.” He also wrote, “Our objective is the Islamization of Muslims” and “Our motto is to have faith and fight.” [Schindler, 2007, pp. 45] In 1983, the Communist government of Yugoslavia sentenced him to 14-years in prison on charges of conspiring to create a Muslim state, however he was released in 1988. The New York Times will later say that the “Muslims of Bosnia were overwhelmingly a secular people. [But] in his strong religious faith, Mr. Izetbegovic was the exception rather than the rule.” He win remain the leader of the Bosnian Muslims through the rest of the 1990s. [New York Times, 10/20/2003]

Entity Tags: Alija Izetbegovic

Timeline Tags: Complete 911 Timeline

There is a growing conflict within the Bush administration between the “selective engagers” and an alliance of “hardliners” and “liberal humanitarianists” over whether or not to intervene militarily in Bosnia. The selective engagers believe that the US should militarily intervene only in cases where US strategic interests are directly threatened. Richard Perle and Albert Wohlstetter are prominently mentioned among the hardliners. [Western, 7/1999]

Bilal Philips.Bilal Philips. [Source: Lightuponlight.com]Shortly after the end of fighting in the US-led Persian Gulf war against Iraq, the US allows the Saudi government to conduct a massive program to convert US soldiers still stationed in Saudi Arabia (see March 1991) to Islam. Huge tents are erected near the barracks of US troops and Saudi imams lecture the soldiers about Islam and attempt to convert them. Within months, about 1,000 soldiers, and perhaps as many as 3,000, convert to Islam. Some US officials express concern about the aggressive conversion effort and the long term implications it may have, but the program is not stopped. Radical imam Bilal Philips helps lead the conversion effort. He will later explain that a special team of fluent English speakers, some trained in psychology, was amply paid by the Saudi government to convert the soldiers. Converts had their pilgrimages to Islamic holy cities paid for and Muslim imams were assigned to follow up with them when they returned to the US. Philips is openly hostile to the US, saying such things as, “Western culture led by the United States is an enemy of Islam.” He will later note that some of his converts went to fight in Bosnia and others were the subject of terrorism probes in the US. [US Congress, Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, 10/14/2003; Washington Post, 11/2/2003] Philips will work with the Saudi government and one of the “Landmarks” bombers to send 14 Muslim ex-US soldiers to fight in Bosnia in 1992 (see December 1992). Listed as an unindicted coconspirator in the 1993 WTC bombing, he will be deported from the US in 2004. [Australian Associated Press, 4/4/2007]

Hasan Cengic.Hasan Cengic. [Source: Dani]The SDA, the ruling party of Bosnian Muslim President Alija Izetbegovic, decides in private meetings that war in Bosnia is inevitable. They begin forming their own paramilitary force called the Patriotic League, which answers to Izetbegovic and his party, not the Bosnian government as a whole. Hasan Cengic, a radical militant imam, is given control of the Patriotic League and begins arming it. The Bosnian Muslims have no armed force at all at this time while the Yugoslavian army they face is very large and well supplied. Cengic travels to many countries arranging secret arms deals to supply the new force, planned to be 30,000 soldiers strong. By the end of the year, he arranges deals with Slovenia, Lebanon, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and other countries. [Schindler, 2007, pp. 70] Cengic’s efforts will be the start of an illegal arms pipeline into Bosnia of massive proportions (see Mid-1991-1996).

Elfatih Hassanein (center).Elfatih Hassanein (center). [Source: Magyar Iszlam]In 1987, a Sudanese man named Elfatih Hassanein found the Third World Relief Agency (TWRA). By mid-1991, Bosnian President Izetbegovic contacts Hassanein, who he has known since the 1970s. The two men agree to turn TWRA from an obscure charity into what the Washington Post will later call “the chief broker of black-market weapons deals by Bosnia’s Muslim-led government and the agent of money and influence in Bosnia for Islamic movements and governments around the world.” A banker in Vienna will later call Hassanein the “bagman” for Izetbegovic. “If the Bosnian government said we need flour, he ran after flour. If they said we need weapons, he ran after weapons.” [Washington Post, 9/22/1996; Schindler, 2007, pp. 148] The TWRA is controlled by a committee composed of Hassanein and:
bullet Hasan Cengic. He is in charge of arming a Bosnian militia run by the SDA party (see June 1991).
bullet Irfan Ljevakovic.
bullet Husein Zivalj.
bullet Dervis Djurdjevic.
All of them are important members of Izetbegovic’s SDA party, and all but Ljevakovic were codefendants with Izetbegovic in a 1983 trial. Most payments require the approval of three of the five, except for amounts greater than $500,000, in which case Izetbegovic has to give approval. The corruption from these higher-ups is said to be incredible, with up to half of all money passing through the TWRA going into their pockets. [Schindler, 2007, pp. 148-152] The TWRA is based in Vienna, Austria, and Izetbegovic personally guarantees Hassanein’s credentials with banks there. Soon, machine guns, missiles and other weapons are being shipped into Bosnia in containers marked as humanitarian aid. Hassanein is a member of Sudan’s government party and a follower of top Sudanese leader Hassan al-Turabi. Just like al-Turabi, he works with bin Laden and the “Blind Sheikh,” Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman. He becomes the main agent in Europe for marketing and selling video and audio tapes of Abdul-Rahman’s sermons. In March 1992, the Sudanese government gives him a diplomatic passport and he uses it to illegally transport large amounts of cash from Austria into Bosnia without being searched. [Burr and Collins, 2006, pp. 140-141] The Saudi Arabian government is the biggest contributor to TWRA, but many other governments give money to it too, such as Sudan, Iran, Pakistan, Brunei, Turkey, and Malaysia. Bin Laden is also a major contributor. [Washington Post, 9/22/1996] Author John Schindler will later note, “Relations between bin Laden and TWRA were close, not least because during the Bosnian war the al-Qaeda leadership was based in Khartoum, Sudan, under the protection of the Sudanese Islamist regime that was the ultimate backer of Hassanein and his firm.” TWRA also works closely with the International Islamic Relief Organization (IIRO) and most other charity fronts in Bosnia. [Schindler, 2007, pp. 151-152] A later study by the Bosnian government with help from Western intelligence agencies will determine that at least $2.5 billion passed through the TWRA to Bosnia between 1992 and 1995. The study will call the TWRA “a group of Bosnian Muslim wartime leaders who formed an illegal, isolated ruling oligarchy, comprising three to four hundred ‘reliable’ people in the military commands, the diplomatic service, and a number of religious dignitaries.… It was this organization, not the Government [of Bosnia], that controlled all aid that Islamic countries donated to the Bosnian Muslims throughout the war.” [Schindler, 2007, pp. 149-150]

The UN Security Council votes to impose an arms embargo on all countries occupying the region of Yugoslavia. Macedonia, Croatia, and Slovenia have split from Yugoslavia by this time and Bosnia will in early 1992, leaving Serbia to dominate what’s left of Yugoslavia. The New York Times comments, “The resolution is in effect an effort to prevent Croatia and other successionist republics from buying arms from other countries. The Yugoslav armed forces have long had a highly developed arms industry of their own and do not need to import weapons at this time…” [New York Times, 9/26/1991]

Entity Tags: United Nations

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Iran opens a weapons smuggling route to Bosnia with the assistance of Turkey. [Wiebes, 2003, pp. 178, 196-197]

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In a meeting held in Lisbon by the European Community, top Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, top Bosnian Muslim leader Alija Izetbegovic, and top Bosnian Croat leader Stepan Klujic sign an agreement to partition Bosnia into three ethnically based divisions which would form a loosely joined independent confederation. But the New York Times will later report, “A few days later, influenced by what he saw as an encouraging conversation with Warren Zimmermann, the United States ambassador, [Izetbegovic] changed his mind.” The Bosnian Muslims and Croats then quickly hold a referendum on the issue of Bosnian independence which passes by 99 percent on March 1, but the Bosnian Serbs boycott the vote. [New York Times, 10/20/2003] Then, on March 18, the same three leaders hold another meeting in Lisbon and again agree to the partition plan. But the New York Times will report a year later, “On returning to Sarajevo, Mr. Izetbegovic was encouraged by United States and European Community diplomats to choose instead a sovereign Bosnia and Herzegovina under his presidency, saying that was justified by the referendum on March 1 on independence.” [New York Times, 6/17/1993] War will break out one month later (see April 6, 1992). The final agreement at the end of the war three years later will closely resemble the agreement almost signed before it began (see December 14, 1995).

Muhammed Cengic, who has close ties to Bosnian intelligence, negotiates a military cooperation agreement with Turkey. According to Prof. Cees Wiebes, the agreement ostensibly involves Turkish purchases of Bosnian arms, but “it is reasonable to assume that the Turkish-Bosnian arms traffic in reality went in the opposite direction.” The Cengic family is very powerful in Bosnia. Western intelligence sources describe them as “Mafia.” [Wiebes, 2003, pp. 178-179] The clan also includes Hasan Cengic, who is one of the key figures in the Third World Relief Agency charity front and illegal weapons pipeline (see Mid-1991-1996).

Entity Tags: Muhammed Cengic

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UN forces begin arriving in Bosnia, where they make their regional headquarters in the capital of Sarajevo. The UN troops are moving into the region in an attempt to keep the peace between Croatian and Serb forces fighting in neighboring Croatia. But within a month, war will break out in Bosnia and the UN troops will find themselves involved there as well (see April 6, 1992). [New York Times, 3/15/1992] US troops will soon be forced to withdraw from Bosnia, but are able to establish a truce in Croatia. [New York Times, 5/31/1992]

Entity Tags: United Nations

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The United States recognizes the states of Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia. The European Union, which has already recognized Croatia and Slovenia, recognizes Bosnia. [US Department of State, 12/6/1995]

Entity Tags: European Union, United States

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Territory controlled around the start of the war. White represents the Bosnian Serbs while gray represents Bosnian Muslims and Croats.Territory controlled around the start of the war. White represents the Bosnian Serbs while gray represents Bosnian Muslims and Croats. [Source: Time / Cowan, Castello, Glanton]Bosnia declares independence from Yugoslavia (which is now mostly made up of Serbia). The Bosnian Serbs immediately declare their own separate state, but remain closely tied to Serbia. War between Bosnia and Serbia begins immediately, adding to the existing war between Croatia and Serbia. Within days, the US recognizes the states of Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia. The European Union, which has already recognized Croatia and Slovenia, recognizes Bosnia as well. Serbia immediately gains the upper hand and within a month Serbian forces surround most of the area around the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo. [US Department of State, 12/6/1995; Time, 12/31/1995; New York Times, 10/20/2003]

Entity Tags: Serbia and Montenegro, Bosnia

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Soon after Bosnian Muslims declare independence from Yugoslavia (see April 6, 1992), Muslim volunteers from all of the Muslim world come to help fight against the Bosnian Serbs. These volunteers are generally known as the mujaheddin, just as they were in the 1980s war in Afghanistan (and many fought there as well). A military analyst will later call them “pretty good fighters and certainly ruthless.” However, their numbers are small, never reaching more than 4,000 (see 1993-1995). In an interview shortly after 9/11, Richard Holbrooke, Balkans peace negotiator for the US, will say, “I think the Muslims wouldn’t have survived without” help from the mujaheddin. But he will also call their help “a pact with the devil” from which Bosnia is still recovering. [Los Angeles Times, 10/7/2001]

Entity Tags: Richard Holbrooke

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At the outset of the war in Bosnia, a small three- or four-man team from the CIA and National Security Agency determine from satellite images that the Serb’s artillery guns are in vulnerable positions and can be easily “eliminated in one single day of air strikes-right at the start of the siege.” When a diplomat who is working with the team sends word of this to Assistant Secretary for European Affairs Tom Niles, the intelligence is ignored by US officials who do not want to US to get militarily involved. Two months later, officials from the Pentagon and CIA will incorrectly tell the Senate foreign relations committee that striking Serbian artillery positions would be impossible because of the dense forests and mountainous terrain. The diplomat will later take his story to the Guardian, suggesting that claims the Bosnian War was unexpected by US intelligence were without merit and that the Senate Committee was deliberately misled. [Guardian, 5/20/1995]

The US Security Council votes to impose tough sanctions on Yugoslavia, which effectively refers to Serbia since most other Yugoslav republics have declared independence. The embargo requires all the countries of the world to cease trading in any commodity, including oil, and to freeze all its foreign assets. All air traffic links are suspended as well. Sales of medicine and food are exempted. The sanctions are meant to pressure Serbia to agree to a cease fire in the war in Bosnia. [New York Times, 5/31/1992]

Entity Tags: United Nations

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Presidential candidate Bill Clinton campaigns “vociferously in support of greater US engagement in Bosnia.” A commission, created by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace to devise a post-Cold War foreign policy framework, has been “hand-feed[ing]” key Democrats its recommendations (see February 1992) in advance of the release of its reports. [American Spectator, 6/1999; Daalder, 2000, pp. 6]

Ayman al-Zawahiri in disguise.Ayman al-Zawahiri in disguise. [Source: Interpol]Al-Qaeda second-in-command Ayman al-Zawahiri is said to visit Bosnia many times from around this date. A prominent Muslim Bosnian politician later claims that al-Zawahiri visited mujaheddin camps in central Bosnia as early as September 1992. The Egyptian government, which considers al-Zawahiri an important enemy, claims al-Zawahiri is running several mujaheddin operations in Bosnia through charity fronts. They also claim he meets regularly with Bosnian Muslim politicians in Sarajevo. He is further said to occasionally meet with Iranian government representatives to discuss the war in Bosnia, as Iran is supplying weapons to the Bosnian Muslims. [Schindler, 2007, pp. 123, 141] Anwar Shaaban, a radical imam leading the Bosnian mujaheddin effort from Milan, Italy (see Late 1993-1994), remains in regular contact with al-Zawahiri, according to Italian intelligence. [Schindler, 2007, pp. 164] In 1993, bin Laden reportedly puts al-Zawahiri in charge of the organization’s operations in the Balkans. [Ottawa Citizen, 12/15/2001] By 1994, al-Zawahiri will settle in Bulgaria to manage operations in Bosnia and the rest of the Balkan region (see September 1994-1996).

Lord David Owen arrives in Sarajevo as the new European Union peace negotiator. Owen is initially seen as anti-Serb and had recently advocated Western air strikes against the Bosnian Serbs. He is outraged that his arrival coincides with a Serb bombardment of the Kosevo Hospital in Sarajevo, Bosnia. But within hours, he learns that the incident was actually provoked by the Bosnian Muslims. He will later say, “The UN monitors actually saw the Muslim troops enter the hospital and, from the hospital grounds, firing at Serb positions. Then the mortar was packed up and removed as the television crew showed up. A few minutes later a retaliatory fire of course landed in or near the hospital and all was filmed for television.” UN Gen. Philippe Morillon immediately writes a letter to Bosnian President Izetbegovic: “I now have concrete evidence from witnesses of this cowardly and disreputable act and I must point out the harm such blatant disregard for the Geneva Convention does to your cause.” But the letter and information about the incident is not made public and the Serbs are the only ones blamed for the incident. Owen will later say, “I asked Morillon why didn’t he make this public, and he shrugged his shoulders [and said], ‘We have to live here.’” [Rothstein, 1999, pp. 176, 188]

Entity Tags: Alija Izetbegovic, Philippe Morillon, David Owen

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Double agent Ali Mohamed spends much of 1992 training al-Qaeda recruits in Afghanistan. But he also gives specialized training in Sudan, Bosnia, and other conflict zones. Using the alias Abu ‘Abdallah, he is part of a 14-man al-Qaeda team made up of retired US military personnel that enters Bosnia through Croatia to train and arm mujaheddin fighters there. Apparently this will come to light in a 1998 trial in Egypt. [Gunaratna, 2003, pp. 41, 150, 337] The training takes place at Meskovic, a village near the town of Tuzla. The 14-man team are smuggled into Bosnia one by one in December 1992. The team is said to be sponsored by a “mosque in Newark, New Jersey.” [Associated Press, 12/3/1995] Mohamed regularly trained militants at the Al-Kifah Refugee Center, an al-Qaeda front in the US (see 1987-1989), and there was a mosque associated to it in Newark. This effort takes place at a time when Al-Kifah is sending many US-based militants to fight in Bosnia (see 1992). It will later be alleged that a US Army official met with people at Al-Kifah in December 1992 and offered to help with a covert operation to support Muslims in Bosnia (see December 1992). Twelve of the Americans leave within two months after training a group of 25 mujaheddin in insurgency warfare. But Mohamed and another American only known by the code name Abu Musa remain at Meskovic until June 1993, occasionally accompanying the mujaheddin on attacks behind Serb lines. [Associated Press, 12/3/1995]

Mohammed Abouhalima.Mohammed Abouhalima. [Source: Corbis]Siddig Siddig Ali, Abdo Mohammed Haggag, Abu Ubaidah Yahya, Mohammed Abouhalima, and others train at a militant training camp in New Bloomfield, Pennsylvania, with weapons and ammunition provided by Yahya and Clement Rodney Hampton-El (see February 21, 1995). Abouhalima will later be convicted for a role in the 1993 WTC bombing, as will his brother (see February 26, 1993) while the others mentioned will be convicted for roles in the related “Landmarks” plot (see June 24, 1993). [USA v. Omar Ahmad Ali Abdel-Rahman et al, 7/13/1995, pp. 9] Yahya is the chief instructor, as he is an ex-US Marine who served two tours in Vietnam and teaches at a martial arts academy. Siddig Ali will later say of Yahya, “[H]e’s decorated and has a lot of medals… [and he was] a great trainer…” The training even includes mock nighttime assaults on a nearby electric power substation. [Kohlmann, 2004, pp. 73] An FBI informant named Garrett Wilson helps lead the FBI to the camp, and the FBI monitors it for two days, January 16 and 17, but the monitoring team is mysteriously pulled away before the end of the second day (see January 16-17, 1993). In a wiretapped conversation with an FBI informant (most likely Wilson), Siddig Ali says regarding the camp, “Our goal is that these people get extensive and very, very, very good training, so that we can get started at anyplace where jihad (holy war) is needed… And after they receive their training, they go to Bosnia… And whoever survives, I mean, could come and [instruct] somewhere else, or Egypt, or any other place, etc…” [Kohlmann, 2004, pp. 73] Hampton-El makes trips to Europe to pick up money from the Third World Relief Agency (TWRA) charity front to fund the camp (see Late 1992-Early 1993). TWRA is funneling huge amounts of weapons into Bosnia in violation of a UN embargo but with the tacit approval of the US (see Mid-1991-1996).

The US government, in collaboration with Hasan Cengic and his father Halid Cengic, starts work on an airport in Visoko, Bosnia, northwest of Sarajevo. This will become a major destination of a secret US arms pipeline into Bosnia. [Wiebes, 2003, pp. 179] US Special Forces are apparently secretly involved in the construction. [Scotsman, 12/3/1995] The Cengics are radical Muslims and Hasan Cengic is heavily involved with an illegal weapons pipeline into Bosnia controlled by radical militants (see Mid-1991-1996). The airport will be completed in late 1994 (see Late 1994-Late 1995).

In June 1993, Abu Ubaidah Yahya will tell the New York Times that early in the year he went to Bosnia with several other Muslims from the New York region to help embattled Bosnian Muslims “with technical advice and medical aid.” [New York Times, 6/26/1993] Yahya is an ex-US Marine connected to numerous figures in the 1993 WTC bombing and “Landmarks” bombing plots, and US intelligence had him under surveillance since January 1993 (see January 7-13, 1993), although how intensive the surveillance was is unknown. The FBI is aware that Yahya repeatedly travels in the spring of 1993 to Vienna, Austria, to pick up money from the Bosnian-linked Third World Relief Agency charity front (see Early April 1993), so presumably he goes to nearby Bosnia on some or all of those trips. It is likely he and his group actually go to Bosnia to fight, since one of his associates told an FBI informant that Yahya and a group of about ten men he trained were going to fight in Bosnia once their training session was over, and the training ended in February 1993 (see December 1992-Early February 1993). Saudis also gave Yahya’s close associate Clement Rodney Hampton-El a considerable amount of money to train militants in the US to fight in Bosnia (see December 1992). [Miller, Stone, and Mitchell, 2002, pp. 113] Yahya is the security chief of the Al-Kifah Refugee Center, a charity front linked to both al-Qaeda and the CIA (see 1986-1993). A group of US militants linked to Al-Kifah go fight in Bosnia starting in December 1992, but this must be a different group since Yahya is still training his group for another two months (see December 1992-June 1993 and December 1992-Early February 1993).

Saeed Sheikh during his London School of Economics days.Saeed Sheikh during his London School of Economics days. [Source: CNN]Saeed Sheikh, a British citizen and student at the London School of Economics, goes to Bosnia on a trip sponsored by the “Convoy of Mercy” [New York Times, 2/25/2002] , a front for the newly formed militant Islamic fundamentalist group, Harkat ul-Ansar. [Jane’s International Security News, 9/20/2001] There he joins Harkat ul-Ansar. [New York Times, 2/25/2002] Aukai Collins, who will meet Saeed Sheikh in a camp in Afghanistan near the border with Pakistan some months later (see June 1993-October 1994), will later confirm that Saeed is a member of Harkat ul-Ansar. [Collins, 2003, pp. 33] Harkat ul-Ansar will change its name to Harkat ul-Mujahedeen in 1997 after Harkat ul-Ansar is named a terrorist organization by the US State Department. [South Asia Analysis Group, 2/18/2002] Collins will also claim Harkat ul-Ansar was funded by bin Laden. [South Asia Analysis Group, 2/18/2002]

Richard Holbrooke.Richard Holbrooke. [Source: US State Department]Saudi intelligence chief Prince Turki al-Faisal urges President Bill Clinton to take the lead in military assistance to Bosnia. Richard Holbrooke, US ambassador to Germany at the time, draws up plans for covert assistance. [Wiebes, 2003, pp. 195]

Kifah Wael Jayyousi.Kifah Wael Jayyousi. [Source: Robert A. Reeder]A Florida cell of Islamic radicals carries out fundraising, training, and recruitment to support the global jihad movement. The group is monitored by the FBI from the early 1990s, but no action is taken against it until after 9/11. The cell’s most prominent members are Adham Amin Hassoun, Mohammed Hesham Youssef, Kifah Wael Jayyousi, Kassem Daher, and Jose Padilla. Adnan Shukrijumah may also be involved (see (Spring 2001)).
bullet Both Hassoun and Jayyousi are associates of “Blind Sheikh” Omar Abdul-Rahman and the FBI monitors telephone conversations between them and Abdul-Rahman from January 1993 to 1995, at least. After Abdul-Rahman is taken into police custody in July 1993, according to an FBI agent, Jayyousi calls Abdul-Rahman in jail to “update the sheikh with jihad news, many times reading accounts and statements issued directly by terrorist organizations.” [St. Petersburg Times, 11/23/2003; Lance, 2006, pp. 126-8; Associated Press, 4/8/2006; International Herald Tribune, 1/4/2007]
bullet Funds are provided through bank accounts of Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya (the Islamic Group), the Canadian Islamic Association, and Benevolence International Foundation (BIF), for which Hassoun files incorporation papers in Florida. The cell pays out thousands of dollars in checks, some of which are marked “Chechnya”, “Kosovo,” or “for tourism”.
bullet They try to talk in code, but the code is unsophisticated; for example “tourism” apparently means “terrorism”. In addition, they are not very careful and in one conversation overheard by the FBI, which records tens of thousands of their conversations from the early 1990s, one plotter asks another if he has enough “soccer equipment” to “launch an attack on the enemy.” In another, the conspirators discuss a $3,500 purchase of “zucchini” in Lebanon.
bullet Cell members are involved in jihad, through funding or direct participation, in Egypt, Somalia, Bosnia, Chechnya, Afghanistan, Lebanon, Libya, Kosovo, the former Soviet Republic of Georgia, and Azerbaijan.
bullet They are involved with both bin Laden and Chechen leader Ibn Khattab; for example, in one conversation Youssef tells Hassoun that he would be traveling “there at Osama’s and… Khattab’s company.” [Indictment. United States v. Jose Padilla, 11/17/2005 pdf file]
bullet They publish the Islam Report, a radical magazine about jihad. [Associated Press, 4/8/2006]
It is unclear why the FBI monitors the cell for almost a decade before doing anything. However, some of their activities are focused on Bosnia, where the US is turning a blind eye, or even actively assisting Islamic militants fighting on the Bosnian side (see 1992-1995 and April 27, 1994). The cell is broken up in the months after 9/11, and Hassoun, Jayyousi, and Padilla are sent for trial, which begins in 2007. [International Herald Tribune, 1/4/2007]

In late 1993, the FBI discovers that WTC bomber Ramzi Yousef used a mosque in Milan, Italy, known as the Islamic Cultural Institute, as a logistical base (see Late 1993-1994). The Italian government begins investigating the mosque and soon discovers that it is the main European headquarters for Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya, a radical Egyptian militant group, and is also the logistical base for mujaheddin traveling to fight in Bosnia. The mosque is run by Anwar Shaaban, who has a close working relationship with Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman, and who also stays in regular contact with al-Qaeda second-in-command Ayman al-Zawahiri. Shaaban runs a training camp thirty miles outside of Milan where fighters heading to Bosnia can practice using weapons and explosives. The mosque also helps smuggle men, money, and weapons to Bosnia. [Schindler, 2007, pp. 163-164] On June 25, 1995, Italian police raid the mosque and over 70 other locations in northern Italy. Seventeen people are indicted and eleven of them are arrested, but that is only a fraction of the hundreds investigated. Inside the mosque, police find forgery tools, letters to wanted radicals around the world, and hundreds of false documents. Plots to bomb targets in other countries and a US target elsewhere in Italy are averted. Shaaban escapes arrest, as he had already left the country, but he is killed in Croatia a short time later (see December 14, 1995). [United Press International, 6/26/1995; Vidino, 2006, pp. 216-218] But the Islamic Cultural Institute will soon reopen and continue to be a focal point for radical militants in Europe. It will be linked the 9/11 attacks and other violent plots (see Late 1998-September 11, 2001).

The British newspaper The Independent publishes the first interview of Osama bin Laden in Western countries. Veteran journalist Robert Fisk interviews bin Laden in Sudan, where bin Laden is ostensibly living a peaceful life. Fisk does note that the “Western embassy circuit in Khartoum has suggested that some of the ‘Afghans’ whom this Saudi entrepreneur flew to Sudan are now busy training for further jihad wars in Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt,” but generally bin Laden is portrayed as a former mujaheddin fighter turned peaceful businessman. This is reflected in the title of the article: “Anti-Soviet Warrior Puts His Army on the Road to Peace.” Bin Laden talks some about his role in the Soviet-Afghan war, boasting that he helped thousands of mujaheddin go there to fight. Fisk comments, “When the history of the Afghan resistance movement is written, Mr. bin Laden’s own contribution to the mujaheddin – and the indirect result of his training and assistance – may turn out to be a turning-point in the recent history of militant fundamentalism…” Fisk tells bin Laden that his name has recently been mentioned by Muslim fighters in Bosnia. Bin Laden acknowledges his influence there, but complains about how difficult it is for fighters to cross into Bosnia. [Independent, 12/6/1993]

Entity Tags: Robert Fisk, Osama bin Laden

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Intelligence services operating in the Balkans, especially US intelligence, become increasingly politicized and are under pressure to produce reports with a pro-Bosnian, anti-Serb slant. [Wiebes, 2003, pp. 86, 141] For instance, one CIA report in 1995 blaming the Bosnian Serbs for the vast majority of the ethnic cleansing in Bosnia will later be accused of distorting the facts to fit an anti-Serb slant (see March 9, 1995).

Entity Tags: US intelligence

Timeline Tags: Complete 911 Timeline

The US begins flying spy planes over Serbia and Bosnia. In March 1994, the CIA begins flying Gnat-750 drone aircraft from Glader, a remote Albanian air force base in north-central Albania. [Associated Press, 5/7/1994] In December 1994, the CIA begins flying more drone aircraft from the Croatian island of Brac. [Associated Press, 2/3/1995] In July 1995, the US begins using the Predator remote spy drone over Bosnia, from the Glader base. [Associated Press, 7/21/1995] Such surveillance information is allegedly shared with Croat and Muslim forces, allowing them to bypass Serb defensive positions in battle. The US officially denies the existence of all these flights since the US is supposed to be neutral in the war. [Observer, 11/5/1995]

Bosnian Muslims and Croats have been fighting each other, as well as Bosnian Serbs, for the past year (see March 1993). But at the urging of the US, a peace deal is agreed to and the Muslim federation of Croatia and Bosnia is formed. Croats and Muslims now concentrate on fighting the Serbs in Bosnia. [Time, 12/31/1995; Wiebes, 2003, pp. 165-166]

Entity Tags: Bosnia

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Bin Laden visits Albania as a member of a Saudi government delegation. He is introduced as a friend of the Saudi government who could finance humanitarian projects. Yet, earlier the same month, the Saudi government supposedly cut all ties with bin Laden (see April 9, 1994). One former US intelligence officer will complain in 1999, “Why was he a member of that delegation? The Saudis are supposed to be our allies. They told us he was persona non grata, and yet here he was working the crowds on an official visit.” Bin Laden strengthens ties with the Albanian secret service, with an eye to assisting the fight against Serbia in the neighboring country of Bosnia. [Reeve, 1999, pp. 180-181; Washington Times, 9/18/2001; Ottawa Citizen, 12/15/2001]

Entity Tags: Osama bin Laden, Albania

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Brigadier Gen. Michael Hayden (left, with glasses), US Marine Corps Gen. David Mize (front and center), and US Marine Corps Lt. Gen. Edward Hanlon Jr. (behind Mize) in Gornji Vakuf, Bosnia, on September 4, 1994.Brigadier Gen. Michael Hayden (left, with glasses), US Marine Corps Gen. David Mize (front and center), and US Marine Corps Lt. Gen. Edward Hanlon Jr. (behind Mize) in Gornji Vakuf, Bosnia, on September 4, 1994. [Source: Paul Harris] (click image to enlarge)US ambassador Charles Thomas; Assistant Secretary of State for Europe Richard Holbrooke, his deputy Robert Frasure, head of intelligence for US European Command Brigadier Gen. Michael Hayden, US Air Force Gen. Charles Boyd, US Marine Corps Gen. David Mize, and US Marine Corps Lt. Gen. Edward Hanlon Jr., meet with the Muslim Bosnian army commander for Central Bosnia, Mehmet Alagic, in the town of Gornji Vakuf. The US group also visits Mostar, which is also controlled by the Bosnian Muslims. The Pentagon claims the US diplomats are there to familiarize themselves with the situation on the ground and the generals “just happened to be along,” but in appears in fact these meetings are part of a US effort to help the Croats and Muslims work together in upcoming offensives. Following this visit, US “logistics advisers” move into key locations throughout Bosnia, including the UN-controlled Tuzla airport. US Special Forces help build a secret airstrip in Visoko, central Bosnia, to land heavy transport aircraft (see Late 1994-Late 1995), and mysterious flights begin arriving at the Tuzla airports a few months later (see February-March 1995). [Observer, 11/20/1994; Scotsman, 12/3/1995] Hayden will later become head of the NSA and then head of the CIA.

Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, bin Laden’s brother-in-law, is in the Netherlands at this time. He meets with representatives of:
bullet The Muwafaq Foundation, a Saudi funded charity operating from the town of Breda, Netherlands.
bullet The Egyptian militant group Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya (the Islamic Group), led by Sheikh Omar Abdul-Rahman.
bullet The Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), an outlawed Islamist political party in Algeria.
What happens in Khalifa’s meetings is unknown, but the next month he opens a branch of the Muwafaq Foundation in the Philippines. [Gunaratna, 2003, pp. 168, 194, 342] Saudi multimillionaire Yassin al-Qadi is believed to be the chief funder of Muwafaq; the US will pronounce him a terrorist financier shortly after 9/11 (see October 12, 2001). The US will later claim Muwafaq funded the Abu Sayyaf militant group in the Philippines (see 1995-1998). A secret 1996 CIA report will claim that Muwafaq has ties to Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya and helps fund mujaheddin fighting in Bosnia (see 1991-1995) and at least one training camp in Afghanistan (see January 1996).

Pressure from the Clinton administration for NATO air strikes in Bosnia leads to a crisis within the NATO alliance. Ivo H. Daalder, who is responsible for coordinating Bosnia policy on the National Security Council, later writes: “By Thanksgiving 1994, the differences within the NATO that had simmered for months below the surface had come to a full boil, creating the worst crisis within the Atlantic alliance since 1956… Faced with the possibility that NATO might be torn asunder by the rift over Bosnia policy, the administration decided to put NATO unity first and abandon any effort to convince the allies or the United Nations that air strikes remained necessary to turn the military tide in Bosnia.” [Daalder, 2000, pp. 33]

Bernard Janvier.Bernard Janvier. [Source: Dani]Roughly around this time, a new airport is completed in the Muslim Bosnian town of Visoko, northwest of Sarajevo. UN soldiers frequently report seeing C-130 transport planes landing there, and they say the runway is constantly being improved to handle more aircraft. One UN soldiers later says to the British newspaper the Observer, “Why don’t you write about Visoko airport? Planes land there all the time and we think they’re American.” [Observer, 11/5/1995; Schindler, 2007, pp. 184-185] Visoko is said to be the logistics center of the Bosnian army and the airport and area is run by Halid Cengic. Author and former NSA officer John Schindler will later call him head of the “fanatical and thievish Cengic clan.” He is said to make great profits on the materiel coming through the airport. He is also the father of Hasan Cengic, who is one of the key figures smuggling huge amounts of weapons into Bosnia through the Third World Relief Agency, a charity front tied to Osama bin Laden and other radical militants (see Mid-1991-1996). [Observer, 11/5/1995; Schindler, 2007, pp. 195] By March 1995, General Bernard Janvier, commander of UN forces in Bosnia, reports to UN Secretary General Kofi Annan that the Visoko airport is in operation and illegal supply flights are landing there. The report notes that the airport was built by Hasan Cengic with help from Iran. Canadian peacekeepers allege that unmarked flights coming into Visoko are American. However, this UN report is not made public. [Schindler, 2007, pp. 184-185] According to the Observer in November 1995, some Bosnian politicians say that the US is the “number one donor of all weapons into Bosnia” and British political sources say the Visoko airport was built with US help. Furthermore, UN officials complain that they frequently report flights into Visoko, but these flights are never cited as violations of the no-fly zone over all of Bosnia. One UN source says, “The Awacs (air warning and control systems planes) have sighted only two flights into Visoko in the last five months. There have been dozen of flights reported from the ground.” These UN officials believe that these flights in Visoko take place on days when Awacs flights are manned by all US crews instead of NATO crews. Another UN source says, “Only the US has the theater control to put certain aircraft in the air at certain times.” [Observer, 11/5/1995]

Entity Tags: Halid Cengic, US Military, Hasan Cengic, Kofi Annan, United Nations, Bernard Janvier

Timeline Tags: Complete 911 Timeline

Apparent footage of one of the mysterious Tuzla flights, from a BBC documentary on the subject.Apparent footage of one of the mysterious Tuzla flights, from a BBC documentary on the subject. [Source: BBC]UN observers and others report that frequent flights entering Bosnia are supplying weapons to the Bosnian Muslims in violation of the UN arms embargo. The flights clearly have the support of the US. [Wiebes, 2003, pp. 177- 198] A UN official who witnesses the flights is physically threatened by three American officers and warned to keep silent. [Wiebes, 2003, pp. 192] Journalists are also pressured and threatened by the US embassy, which is later said to have been acting on instructions from the State Department. [Wiebes, 2003, pp. 192] A subsequent investigation conducted with the support of the Netherlands government will conclude that the operation was conducted by a third party, probably Turkey, with “the assent of parts of the US government.” [Wiebes, 2003, pp. 195-198] Tim Ripley, who covers the military conflicts in Yugoslavia for Jane’s Intelligence Review, blames the Tuzla flights and similar operations on “‘covert warriors’ of the NSC [National Security Council] and State Department.” [Ripley, 1999, pp. 93] Prof. Cees Wiebes, who conducts the Netherlands investigation, agrees saying that “the State Department and National Security Council (NSC) were involved, but not the CIA or the DIA.” According to a confidential source, “the operation was… paid for from a Pentagon Special Operations budget, with the complete assent of the White House. Probably the most important members of Congress were informed in the deepest of secrecy, and they were therefore ‘in the loop’ concerning the events.” [Wiebes, 2003, pp. 193] Ripley says that US NATO officers were not involved, but points out that NATO Commander Admiral Leighton Smith was careful to only deny “uniformed” US military involvement. Ripley suggests that American “freelance operatives” were brought in by “senior members of the Clinton Administration.” [Ripley, 1999, pp. 62-63] According to Ripley, “Senior US military commanders and CIA officials were just staggered by the ‘duplicity’ and ‘deceit’ at the heart of the Clinton Administration’s policies.” [Ripley, 1999, pp. 91]

Entity Tags: Clinton administration, Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Council, US Department of State

Timeline Tags: Complete 911 Timeline

A Bosnian Muslim named Munib Zahiragic joins Bosnia’s Muslim secret police by mid-1995, while he is also working for the Sarajevo office of the US-based charity Benevolence International Foundation (BIF). By September 1996, he is stealing top secret documents and giving them to Enaam Arnaout, the US executive director of BIF and also linked to al-Qaeda. He gives Arnaout hundreds of documents about mujaheddin and al-Qaeda operatives. Arnaout then passes them on to al-Qaeda, allowing many to avoid capture. For instance, high-ranking al-Qaeda leader Mamdouh Mahmud Salim is tipped off that investigators are onto him when he visits Bosnia in 1998 (see May 7, 1998). After Zahiragic leaves the secret police in June 2000, he works full time for BIF. In March 2002, Bosnian police will raid the BIF’s Sarajevo office, arrest Zahiragic, and discover weapons, booby traps, fake passports, and bomb making plans. A raid on another BIF office at the same time will uncover the stolen documents. Zahiragic is convicted of espionage in Bosnia a year later but he is only sentenced to two years in prison. [Associated Press, 6/30/2003; Schindler, 2007, pp. 288-289] Despite his arrest, Bosnian intelligence agencies remain completely penetrated by others. Highly classified Bosnian documents are sometimes found with Islamist militants in Bosnia and are even published in militant newsletters. [Schindler, 2007, pp. 312-313]

Having already entered into its controversial relationship with the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), the US gives in to the organization’s demands that it be removed from the State Department’s list of foreign terrorist organizations. [Wall Street Journal (Europe), 11/1/2001] Near the end of that same month, Robert Gelbard, America’s special envoy to Bosnia, says the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) is an Islamic terrorist organization. [BBC, 6/28/1998] “We condemn very strongly terrorist actions in Kosovo. The UCK [KLA] is, without any question, a terrorist group.[Agence France-Presse, 4/1999] “I know a terrorist when I see one and these men are terrorists,” he says. [BBC, 6/28/1998]

The June 9, 1999 Military Technical Agreement between the International Security Force (KFOR), Yugoslavia, and Serbia, ending NATO’s bombing campaign, creates a ground safety zone (GSZ), which is closed to the Yugoslav army and heavy weapons, and is five kilometers wide along the Serbia-Kosova border. The majorities in the nearby Serbian counties of Presheva, Bujanovic, and Medvegja are Albanian historically, though Albanians will not be the majority in Medvegja a few years later. The Liberation Army of Presheva, Medvegja, and Bujanovic, known by its Albanian acronym, the UCPMB (Ushtria Clirimtare e Presheves, Medvegjes dhe Bujanovcit), organizes to join the region with Kosova and uses the GSZ as a refuge. British journalist John Phillips will later suggest that the UCPMB was a provocation to help Slobodan Milosevic regain power or provoke a coup by the Yugoslav military. Others say that the UCPMB was created by the CIA or US State Department to destabilize Yugoslavia prior to the overthrow of Milosevic on October 6, 1999, but it is now out of control. According to a paper presented to the Conflict Studies Research Center at Sandhurst, England, the guerrillas show signs of American training: their method of marching, what they sing on the march, and their tactics—tactics that did not develop over the three years fighting in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Albanian scholar Paulin Kola will later quote an unnamed UCPMB officer who says, “If [the US military] ask us to fire three rounds tomorrow, that’s what we do.” The UCPMB also says it can get in touch with NATO. The guerillas are strong and publish their newspaper in US-occupied Gjilan, Kosova. At one point US forces will lose track of an alleged Albanian CIA operative originally arrested by the British and charged with bombing a bus. Nonetheless, Kola will say the UCPMB acts out of local Albanians’ historical desire to be included in Kosova and fear of Yugoslav vengeance. The UCPMB will emerge officially in January 2000. [Kola, 2003, pp. 372-375; Phillips, 2004, pp. 1-3, 10]

Der Bomben Terror im Auftrage der Internationalen Drogen Kartelle und Islam Terroristen gegen Jugoslawien

Im Rückblick kann man Sagen, das diese Verbrechen der NATO, wo noch in 1998, durch den UN Sondergesandten Robert Gelbard, die UCK – KLA als „ohne Zweifel eine Terroristische Organisation“ bezeichnet wird, der grosse Verlierer im Internationalen Ansehen ist. Offizieller Grund: Die Amerikaner wollten Europa schwächen was gelang, und im Balkan nachdem 2. WK einen Militär Stützpunkt haben, der bis heute mit der Drogen Verteil Stelle: Bondsteel immer noch besteht und als Terroristen Ausbildungsstelle, auch für Syrien.

Frau Renate Flottau, erlebte den Beginn des NATO Terroristen Bomben Krieges, wo in Folge ca. 700.000 Kosovo Bürger die Kriegs Region verliessen, im Hause von Ibrahim Rugova im Kosovo live mit. Bis heute verseuchen die in die Adria entsorgten NATO Bomben die Adria und nur Gerhard Schröder sagte später: „das war ein grosser Fehler“ und beteiligte trotz Empörung nicht am Massenmord der Amerikaner mit dem nächsten Krieg gegen den Irak.

Kriegstagebuch aus Belgrad (1999) „Doch wir halten durch“

Kriegstagebuch aus Belgrad (1999): "Doch wir halten durch"

Als die Nato 1999 Jugoslawien bombardierte, harrte SPIEGEL-Korrespondentin Renate Flottau in Belgrad aus und schrieb ihr Kriegstagebuch. Eine preisgekrönte Reportage, wiederentdeckt zum 70. SPIEGEL-Geburtstag. mehr…

Hommage an Mikis Theodorakis, der nochmal ein Konzert in Athen gab

Ein grosser Grieche, dessen Lieder Europa und Griechenland schon vor vielen Jahrzehnten begeisterten.

Mikis Theodorakis – Golden Collection

„Ganz Griechenland für Miki“

 https://www.heise.de/scale/geometry/700/q75/tp/imgs/89/2/2/2/5/7/1/5/5f749863f826a5af.jpeg

Bild: Wassilis Aswestopoulos

Eine persönliche Hommage an Mikis Theodorakis, den Giganten der griechischen Musik, der als 92-Jähriger am Montag ein denkwürdiges Konzert gab

Am Montagabend fand in Athen, im geschichtsträchtigen Kallimarmaro-Stadion, ein Konzert statt. „Ganz Griechenland für Miki“, war der Titel der Veranstaltung, bei dem ein Chor von 1000 Sängern zusammen mit einem Orchester und Einzelinterpreten einen Abend für den wohl bedeutendsten Musiker Griechenlands veranstaltete. Das Kallimarmaro-Stadion, eine antike Sportarena, die für die ersten Olympischen Spiele der Neuzeit 1896 in Athen mit privaten Spendengeldern renoviert worden war, erschien den Veranstaltern als die passende Kulisse für den knapp zweiundneunzigjährigen, mittlerweile sehr gebrechlichen Giganten der griechischen Musik.

Zeit seines Lebens war Theodorakis als harter Mann bekannt. Bereits als Jugendlicher war er im Widerstand gegen die Nazibesatzung aktiv. Im anschließenden Bürgerkrieg kämpfte er als Partisan der Kommunisten gegen die von Großbritannien und den USA unterstützten Konservativen. Später wurde er verbannt und unter der Obristendiktatur (1967 bis 1974) gefoltert.

„Ganz Griechenland für Miki“

Mikis, wie er in Griechenland von Freund und Feind genannt wird, ging ins Ausland und in den Widerstand. Dabei hatte er in Mosche Dajan einen engen Freund und Unterstützer. Trotzdem brachten spätere Äußerungen Theodorakis zu aktuellen Themen auch den unberechtigten Vorwurf des Antisemitismus ein. Mikis beklagte sich darüber bei der Tochter Dajans, mit der auch heute noch in Kontakt ist.

Mikis polarisierte immer, auch als er Ende der Achtziger und Anfang der Neunziger zusammen mit dem konservativen, neoliberalen Premierminister Konstantinos Mitsotakis in die Regierung ging. Was auch immer Theodorakis, der den aktuellen Premier Griechenlands, Alexis Tsipras, als Opportunisten, Populisten und Verräter sieht, politisch gemacht hat, ist nicht Thema des vorliegenden Textes. Vielmehr geht es um das, was auch die „Freunde Mikis Theodorakis“ auf Facebook veröffentlichten:

Der Mann, der nicht weinte, als man ihm das Bein brach, nicht seufzte als man ihn lebendig auf Markonissos begrub, nicht klagte, als man ihn auf Ikaria in eine Sickergrube voll Kot warf, nicht schluchzte, als man ihn vor das Erschießungskommando in Tripolis stellte und als er in Oropos (bei der Verbannung) einen Blutsturz erlitt, bricht in Tränen aus bei der Beendigung des Dirigierens der „Entsagung“.

Es geht um eine persönliche Erfahrung des Autors als Kameramann beim Konzert und um Mikis Theodorakis als eines seit der Kindheit wie ein Verwandter im Leben des Autors befindlichen Menschen.

In den 70er Jahren des vergangenen Jahrhunderts erlebte ich die Jahre der Obristendiktatur als kleines Kind. In Aachen hatte sich damals einen großen Teil des Widerstands gegen die Junta versammelt. Die Mikis-Konzerte im Audimax der RWTH Aachen waren daher eher politische Ereignisse für die Griechen und ein Erlebnis für die deutschen Aachener, welche die Junta nicht mochten und zugleich die Dynamik von Mikis Musik liebten.

Eine Fotografie verschwommen, dunkel und komplett unscharf erinnert mich an eines dieser Konzerte. Ich hatte eine kleine Pocket-Kamera mit Kleinbildkassette und drückte auf den Knopf. Um damit den vor mir befindlichen „Fels“ zu verewigen.

Mikis erschien mir in meinen Kinderaugen wahrlich als Riese, während ich im Orchestergraben stehend auf die Bühne schaute. Natürlich gelang das Bild nicht. Mit einem ASA 100 Standardfilm und der ungeübten Kinderhand erschien zu meiner Enttäuschung nur eine Erschütterung eines Körpers in absolutem Schwarz auf dem Foto. Im Urlaub in Ouranoupoli auf Chalkidiki sah ihn Jahre später durch die Straßen spazieren. Mit einer analogen Spiegelreflexkamera gelangen Fotos, die aber nie das waren, was ich immer noch suchte.

Die Jahre vergingen, Mikis wurde älter und greise, Konzerte gab er nicht mehr. Ich traf ihn auf dem Syntagmaplatz in Athen im Februar 2012 als er zusammen mit anderen gegen die Spardiktate demonstrieren wollte. Eine Tränengasgranate eines ignoranten Polizisten streckte ihn nieder. Meine Kamera zeichnete alles auf und die Fotos landeten in der Presse. Zurück blieb bei mir ein ungutes Gefühl. Seit dem denkwürdigen Februar leidet Theodorakis unter schweren Atemproblemen. Sein körperlicher Verfall wurde beschleunigt.

Vergrößern

Bild: Wassilis Aswestopoulos

Später erhielt ich bei der Weltpremiere des Films „Recycling Medea“ von Asteris Koutoulas eine erneute Gelegenheit dem Komponisten nahe zu kommen. Koutoulas, ein Freund, der trotz tiefgreifender politischer Dispute zwischen uns, niemals ein böses Wort verlor, betraute mich mit der Fotografie seiner Premiere. Er ist Mikis Biograph, seit er damals als Übersetzer in der damaligen DDR die Auftritte des Komponisten im Ostblock begleitete………………………

 

 

 

https://www.heise.de/tp/features/Ganz-Griechenland-fuer-Miki-3750854.html

Pentagon Chef: James Mattis: kein Giftgas benutzt der Syrische Staatschef Assad: Dreiste Lügen und PR von: von der Leyen, Angela Merkel, S. Gabriel

Die menschliche Müllhalde, welche sich Deutsche Regierung nennt, erneut bei einer besonders dreisten Kriegs Lüge, für die Banken und Kriegs Mafia ertappt. Grundlage war eine „twitter“ fake news Meldung, inklusive gedrehter Theater Show von der Kopf Abschneider und Terroristen Organisation: „White Helms“ auch vom Auswärtigen Amte finanziert mit Millionen pro Jahr.

 

Jeremy Varon – Straflos Krieg führen und foltern

Überall Partner des Verbrecherns, der Doppelmoral, der Lüge und der Massenmorde ist Deutschland geworden.

Die Mutter aller Doppelmoral und Scheinheiligkeit

Schlimmer wie Hitler, finanzieren die Deutschen inzwischen schon den Panzer Aufmärsche an der Russischen Grenze, brechen jeden Internationalen Vertrag, Provozieren seit über 10 Jahren die Russen erneut, haben aus der Geschichte Nichts gelernt. Terroristen Förderung für Geld, wie bei den MEK Terroristen in Tirana, ist heute wie die Waffen Exporte nach Katar, Saudi Arabien die einzige Aussenpolitik.

Kriegs Lügen ohne Ende: von Angela Merkel, Ursula von der Leyen, welche heute mit „Terroristen“ und Verbrechern schlimmer agieren als in der Nazi Zeit

Einzige US und Deutsche Aussenpolitik: Elmar Brok und AA Gestalten in Aktion
CDU - KAS Jugend Förderung, Modell Elmar Brok
CDU – KAS Jugend Förderung, Modell Elmar Brok

U.S.: ‚No doubt‘ That Villain-Of-The-Day Has Banned Weapons

Mattis: ‚No doubt‚ Syrian regime has chemical weapons, April 21, 2017

„There can be no doubt in the international community’s mind that Syria has retained chemical weapons in violation of its agreement and its statement that it had removed them all. There is no longer any doubt,“ Mattis told reporters.

Full text of Dick Cheney’s speech, August 27, 2002

Simply stated, there is no doubt that Saddam Hussein now has weapons of mass destruction. There is no doubt he is amassing them to use against our friends, against our allies, and against us. And there is no doubt that his aggressive regional ambitions will lead him into future confrontations with his neighbors …

“Those who don’t know history are doomed to repeat it.”

― Edmund Burke

Posted by b at 01:04 PM | Comments (42)

Al-Qaeda propaganda organizations in Khan Sheikhun were the first to claim that sarin was used on the ground. „Western“ media and governments later repeated those claims before any further investigations could have been done. The very first claim I found was made by the former British doctor Shajul Islam who works for the terrorists. This video of him of „doctors „and „patients“ in an emergence room in Khan Sheikhun is pure theater, taken over a longer time period. The main presenter, Shajul Islam, is a well-known criminal Takfiri with links to the British secret service. He talks of sarin even though the „patients“ around him show no signs of sarin effects and the emergency personal in the video is unprotected against potent chemical agents.

A White House assessment later claimed that it had evidence that sarin was used. It used the claim to justify the bombing of the Syrian military airport Al Syairat. But the White House assessment contains no evidence. It includes a number of factually false statements. It claims, for example:

]T]he World Health Organization stated on April 5 that its analysis of victims of the attack in Syria showed the had been exposed to nerve agents

The WHO report from April 5 stated no such thing. It only noted:

Cont. reading: Chlorine, Not Sarin, Was Used In The Khan Sheikhun Incident

John McCain mit den MEK Terroristen in Albanien, mit dem IS Führer persönlich und Allgemein bekannt. John McCain auch in 2017, dabei bei der MSC des Wolfgang Ischinger, denn man muss neue Kriege und Massenmorde planen und organisieren. Elmar Brok und die Kriegs Verbrecher Franktion der IS Finanzierung mit John McCain

Bildergebnis für john mccain syrien

Bildergebnis für john mccain syrien

Man wird noch nur verheizt, was im Kosovo Krieg schon klar wurde, mit den durch Lügen organisierten Kriegen und dem Bruch des Völkerrechts.

Ein Kabinettsmitglied, dessen Posten auch dann wackelt, wenn die CDU ihren bisherigen Koalitionspartner SPD behält, ist Ursula von der Leyen. Der Militärhistoriker Sönke Neitzel offenbarte in der Frankfurter Allgemeinen Sonntagszeitung (FAS) unlängst, dass in der Bundeswehr der „Abgang“ der Verteidigungsministerin (die so schnarrend-preußisch spricht, wie das seit Wilhelm II. nicht mehr üblich war) „geradezu herbeigewünscht“ wird – „zumindest von den meisten

Das war schon im Kosovo-Krieg so, als die Generäle die Diplomaten vor der Androhung militärischer Mittel warnten – dann müsse man sie womöglich auch einsetzen, und zwar mit allen Konsequenzen. In Afghanistan stand die Bundeswehr bald vor unlösbaren Aufgaben. Interessiert hat das kaum jemand, die Truppe würde es schon richten. Hauptsache, man konnte den Einsatz innenpolitisch als Friedensmission verkaufen. Und den Offizieren vor Ort fiel die undankbare Aufgabe zu, ihren Soldaten zu erklären, was die Politik nicht begründen konnte. Gewiss, manches besserte sich seit 2009. Aber eine Strategie gibt es bis heute nicht. Es gilt der Grundsatz: Hauptsache, wir sind dabei, und es passiert nichts. Aber wozu Soldaten in einen Auslandseinsatz schicken, die sich vor allem selbst schützen? All dies trägt zur Frustration jener Soldaten bei, die in unser aller Namen nach wie vor ihr Leben riskieren. Zumal sich die Bundesregierung beharrlich weigert, eine ehrliche Evaluation des Isaf-Einsatzes vorzulegen.

Clinton-Approved Iranian Arms Transfers Help Turn Bosnia into Militant Islamic Base

Bakir Izetbegovic, Hasan Cengic, Hashim Thaci

U.S. Senate Republican Policy Committee - Larry E. Craig, Chairman - Jade West, Staff Director

January 16, 1997

Extended Bosnia Mission Endangers U.S. Troops

Clinton-Approved Iranian Arms Transfers Help Turn Bosnia into Militant Islamic Base

„‚There is no question that the policy of getting arms into Bosnia was of great assistance in allowing the Iranians to dig in and create good relations with the Bosnian government,‘ a senior CIA officer told Congress in a classified deposition. ‚And it is a thing we will live to regret because when they blow up some Americans, as they no doubt will before this . . . thing is over, it will be in part because the Iranians were able to have the time and contacts to establish themselves well in Bosnia.'“ [„Iran Gave Bosnia Leader $500,000, CIA Alleges: Classified Report Says Izetbegovic Has Been ‚Co-Opted,‘ Contradicting U.S. Public Assertion of Rift,“ Los Angeles Times, 12/31/96. Ellipses in original. Alija Izetbegovic is the Muslim president of Bosnia.]

„‚If you read President Izetbegovic’s writings, as I have, there is no doubt that he is an Islamic fundamentalist,‘ said a senior Western diplomat with long experience in the region. ‚He is a very nice fundamentalist, but he is still a fundamentalist. This has not changed. His goal is to establish a Muslim state in Bosnia, and the Serbs and Croats understand this better than the rest of us.'“ [„Bosnian Leader Hails Islam at Election Rallies,“ New York Times, 9/2/96]

Introduction and Summary

In late 1995, President Bill Clinton dispatched some 20,000 U.S. troops to Bosnia-Hercegovina as part of a NATO-led „implementation force“ (IFOR) to ensure that the warring Muslim, Serbian, and Croatian factions complied with provisions of the Dayton peace plan. [NOTE: This paper assumes the reader is acquainted with the basic facts of the Bosnian war leading to the IFOR deployment. For background, see RPC’s „Clinton Administration Ready to Send U.S. Troops to Bosnia, „9/28/95,“ and Legislative Notice No. 60, „Senate to Consider Several Resolutions on Bosnia,“ 12/12/95] Through statements by Administration spokesmen, notably Defense Secretary Perry and Joint Chiefs Chairman General Shalikashvili, the president firmly assured Congress and the American people that U.S. personnel would be out of Bosnia at the end of one year. Predictably, as soon as the November 1996 election was safely behind him, President Clinton announced that approximately 8,500 U.S. troops would be remaining for another 18 months as part of a restructured and scaled down contingent, the „stabilization force“ (SFOR), officially established on December 20, 1996.

SFOR begins its mission in Bosnia under a serious cloud both as to the nature of its mission and the dangers it will face. While IFOR had successfully accomplished its basic military task — separating the factions‘ armed forces — there has been very little progress toward other stated goals of the Dayton agreement, including political and economic reintegration of Bosnia, return of refugees to their homes, and apprehension and prosecution of accused war criminals. It is far from certain that the cease-fire that has held through the past year will continue for much longer, in light of such unresolved issues as the status of the cities of Brcko (claimed by Muslims but held by the Serbs) and Mostar (divided between nominal Muslim and Croat allies, both of which are currently being armed by the Clinton Administration). Moreover, at a strength approximately one-third that of its predecessor, SFOR may not be in as strong a position to deter attacks by one or another of the Bosnian factions or to avoid attempts to involve it in renewed fighting: „IFOR forces, despite having suffered few casualties, have been vulnerable to attacks from all of the contending sides over the year of the Dayton mandate. As a second mandate [i.e., SFOR] evolves, presumably maintaining a smaller force on the ground, the deterrent effect which has existed may well become less compelling and vulnerabilities of the troops will increase.“ [„Military Security in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Present and Future,“ Bulletin of the Atlantic Council of the United States, 12/18/96]

The Iranian Connection

Perhaps most threatening to the SFOR mission — and more importantly, to the safety of the American personnel serving in Bosnia — is the unwillingness of the Clinton Administration to come clean with the Congress and with the American people about its complicity in the delivery of weapons from Iran to the Muslim government in Sarajevo. That policy, personally approved by Bill Clinton in April 1994 at the urging of CIA Director-designate (and then-NSC chief) Anthony Lake and the U.S. ambassador to Croatia Peter Galbraith, has, according to the Los Angeles Times (citing classified intelligence community sources), „played a central role in the dramatic increase in Iranian influence in Bosnia.“ Further, according to the Times, in September 1996 National Security Agency analysts contradicted Clinton Administration claims of declining Iranian influence, insisting instead that „Iranian Revolutionary Guard personnel remain active throughout Bosnia.“ Likewise, „CIA analysts noted that the Iranian presence was expanding last fall,“ with some ostensible cultural and humanitarian activities „known to be fronts“ for the Revolutionary Guard and Iran’s intelligence service, known as VEVAK, the Islamic revolutionary successor to the Shah’s SAVAK. [LAT, 12/31/96] At a time when there is evidence of increased willingness by pro-Iranian Islamic militants to target American assets abroad — as illustrated by the June 1996 car-bombing at the Khobar Towers in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, that killed 19 American airmen, in which the Iranian government or pro-Iranian terrorist organizations are suspected [„U.S. Focuses Bomb Probe on Iran, Saudi Dissident,“ Chicago Tribune, 11/4/96] — it is irresponsible in the extreme for the Clinton Administration to gloss over the extent to which its policies have put American personnel in an increasingly vulnerable position while performing an increasingly questionable mission.

Three Key Issues for Examination

This paper will examine the Clinton policy of giving the green light to Iranian arms shipments to the Bosnian Muslims, with serious implications for the safety of U.S. troops deployed there. (In addition, RPC will release a general analysis of the SFOR mission and the Clinton Administration’s requBakir Izetbegovic,est for supplemental appropriations to fund it in the near future.) Specifically, the balance of this paper will examine in detail the three issues summarized below:

1. The Clinton Green Light to Iranian Arms Shipments (page 3): In April 1994, President Clinton gave the government of Croatia what has been described by Congressional committees as a „green light“ for shipments of weapons from Iran and other Muslim countries to the Muslim-led government of Bosnia. The policy was approved at the urging of NSC chief Anthony Lake and the U.S. ambassador to Croatia Peter Galbraith. The CIA and the Departments of State and Defense were kept in the dark until after the decision was made.

2. The Militant Islamic Network (page 5): Along with the weapons, Iranian Revolutionary Guards and VEVAK intelligence operatives entered Bosnia in large numbers, along with thousands of mujahedin („holy warriors“) from across the Muslim world. Also engaged in the effort were several other Muslim countries (including Brunei, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Turkey) and a number of radical Muslim organizations. For example, the role of one Sudan-based „humanitarian organization,“ called the Third World Relief Agency, has been well-documented. The Clinton Administration’s „hands-on“ involvement with the Islamic network’s arms pipeline included inspections of missiles from Iran by U.S. government officials.

3. The Radical Islamic Character of the Sarajevo Regime (page 8): Underlying the Clinton Administration’s misguided green light policy is a complete misreading of its main beneficiary, the Bosnian Muslim government of Alija Izetbegovic. Rather than being the tolerant, multiethnic democratic government it pretends to be, there is clear evidence that the ruling circle of Izetbegovic’s party, the Party of Democratic Action (SDA), has long been guided by the principles of radical Islam. This Islamist orientation is illustrated by profiles of three important officials, including President Izetbegovic himself; the progressive Islamization of the Bosnian army, including creation of native Bosnian mujahedin units; credible claims that major atrocities against civilians in Sarajevo were staged for propaganda purposes by operatives of the Izetbegovic government; and suppression of enemies, both non-Muslim and Muslim.

The Clinton Green Light to Iranian Arms Shipments

Both the Senate Intelligence Committee and the House Select Subcommittee to Investigate the United States Role in Iranian Arms Transfers to Croatia and Bosnia issued reports late last year. (The Senate report, dated November 1996, is unclassified. The House report is classified, with the exception of the final section of conclusions, which was released on October 8, 1996; a declassified version of the full report is expected to be released soon.) The reports, consistent with numerous preBakir Izetbegovic,ss accounts, confirm that on April 27, 1994, President Clinton directed Ambassador Galbraith to inform the government of Croatia that he had „no instructions“ regarding Croatia’s decision whether or not to permit weapons, primarily from Iran, to be transshipped to Bosnia through Croatia. (The purpose was to facilitate the acquisition of arms by the Muslim-led government in Sarajevo despite the arms embargo imposed on Yugoslavia by the U.N. Security Council.) Clinton Administration officials took that course despite their awareness of the source of the weapons and despite the fact that the Croats (who were themselves divided on whether to permit arms deliveries to the Muslims) would take anything short of a U.S. statement that they should not facilitate the flow of Iranian arms to Bosnia as a „green light.“

The green light policy was decided upon and implemented with unusual secrecy, with the CIA and the Departments of State and Defense only informed after the fact. [„U.S. Had Options to Let Bosnia Get Arms, Avoid Iran,“ Los Angeles Times, 7/14/96] Among the key conclusions of the House Subcommittee were the following (taken from the unclassified section released on October 8):

„The President and the American people were poorly served by the Administration officials who rushed the green light decision without due deliberation, full information and an adequate consideration of the consequences.“ (page 202)

„The Administration’s efforts to keep even senior US officials from seeing its ‚fingerprints‘ on the green light policy led to confusion and disarray within the government.“ (page 203)

„The Administration repeatedly deceived the American people about its Iranian green light policy.“ (page 204)

Clinton, Lake, and Galbraith Responsible

While the final go-ahead for the green light was given by President Clinton — who is ultimately accountable for the results of his decision — two Clinton Administration officials bear particular responsibility: Ambassador Galbraith and then-NSC Director Anthony Lake, against both of whom the House of Representatives has referred criminal charges to the Justice Department. Mr. Lake, who personally presented the proposal to Bill Clinton for approval, „played a central role in preventing the responsible congressional committees from knowing about the Administration’s fateful decision to acquiesce in radical Islamic Iran’s effort to penetrate the European continent through arms shipments and military cooperation with the Bosnian government.“ [„‚In Lake We Trust‘? Confirmation Make-Over Exacerbates Senate Concerns About D.C.I.-Designate’s Candor, Reliability,“ Center for Security Policy, Washington, D.C., 1/8/97] His responsibility for the operation is certain to be a major hurdle in his effort to be confirmed as CIA Director: „The fact that Lake was one of the authors of the duplicitous policy in Bosnia, which is very controversial and which has probably helped strengthen the hand of the Iranians, doesn’t play well,“ stated Senate Intelligence Chairman Richard Shelby. [„Lake to be asked about donation,“ Washington Times, 1/2/97]

For his part, Ambassador Galbraith was the key person both in conceiving the policy and in serving as the link between the Clinton Administration and the Croatian government; he also met with Imam Sevko Omerbasic, the top Muslim cleric in Croatia, „who the CIA says was an intermediary for Iran.“ [„Fingerprints: Arms to Bosnia, the real story,“ The New Republic, 10/28/96; see also LAT 12/23/96] As the House Subcommittee concluded (page 206): „There is evidence that Ambassador Galbraith may have engaged in activities that could be characterized as unauthorized covert action.“ The Senate Committee (pages 19 and 20 of the report) was unable to agree on the specific legal issue of whether Galbraith’s actions constituted a „covert action“ within the definition of section 503(e) of the National Security Act of 1947 (50 U.S.C. Sec. 413(e)), as amended, defined as „an activity or activities . . . to influence political, economic, or military conditions abroad, where it is intended that the role of the United States Government will not be apparent or acknowledged publicly.“

The Militant Islamic Network

The House Subcommittee report also concluded (page 2): „The Administration’s Iranian green light policy gave Iran an unprecedented foothold in Europe and has recklessly endangered American lives and US strategic interests.“ Further —

“ . . . The Iranian presence and influence [in Bosnia] jumped radically in the months following the green light. Iranian elements infiltrated the Bosnian government and established close ties with the current leadership in Bosnia and the next generation of leaders. Iranian Revolutionary Guards accompanied Iranian weapons into Bosnia and soon were integrated in the Bosnian military structure from top to bottom as well as operating in independent units throughout Bosnia. The Iranian intellBakir Izetbegovic,igence service [VEVAK] ran wild through the area developing intelligence networks, setting up terrorist support systems, recruiting terrorist ’sleeper‘ agents and agents of influence, and insinuating itself with the Bosnian political leadership to a remarkable degree. The Iranians effectively annexed large portions of the Bosnian security apparatus [known as the Agency for Information and Documentation (AID)] to act as their intelligence and terrorist surrogates. This extended to the point of jointly planning terrorist activities. The Iranian embassy became the largest in Bosnia and its officers were given unparalleled privileges and access at every level of the Bosnian government.“ (page 201)

Not Just the Iranians

To understand how the Clinton green light would lead to this degree of Iranian influence, it is necessary to remember that the policy was adopted in the context of extensive and growing radical Islamic activity in Bosnia. That is, the Iranians and other Muslim militants had long been active in Bosnia; the American green light was an important political signal to both Sarajevo and the militants that the United States was unable or unwilling to present an obstacle to those activities — and, to a certain extent, was willing to cooperate with them. In short, the Clinton Administration’s policy of facilitating the delivery of arms to the Bosnian Muslims made it the de facto partner of an ongoing international network of governments and organizations pursuing their own agenda in Bosnia: the promotion of Islamic revolution in Europe. That network involves not only Iran but Brunei, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan (a key ally of Iran), and Turkey, together with front groups supposedly pursuing humanitarian and cultural activities.

For example, one such group about which details have come to light is the Third World Relief Agency (TWRA), a Sudan-based, phoney humanitarian organization which has been a major link in the arms pipeline to Bosnia. [„How Bosnia’s Muslims Dodged Arms Embargo: Relief Agency Brokered Aid From Nations, Radical Groups,“ Washington Post, 9/22/96; see also „Saudis Funded Weapons For Bosnia, Official Says: $300 Million Program Had U.S. ‚Stealth Cooperation‘,“ Washington Post, 2/2/96] TWRA is believed to be connected with such fixtures of the Islamic terror network as Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman (the convicted mastermind behind the 1993 World Trade Center bombing) and Osama Binladen, a wealthy Saudi emigre believed to bankroll numerous militant groups. [WP, 9/22/96] (Sheik Rahman, a native of Egypt, is currently in prison in the United States; letter bombs addressed to targets in Washington and London, apparently from Alexandria, Egypt, are believed connected with his case. Binladen was a resident in Khartoum, Sudan, until last year; he is now believed to be in Afghanistan, „where he has issued statements calling for attacks on U.S. forces in the Persian Gulf.“ [WP, 9/22/96])

The Clinton Administration’s „Hands-On“ Help

The extent to which Clinton Administration officials, notably Ambassador Galbraith, knowingly or negligently, cooperated with the efforts of such front organizations is unclear. For example, according to one intelligence account seen by an unnamed U.S. official in the Balkans, „Galbraith ‚talked with representatives of Muslim countries on payment for arms that would be sent to Bosnia,‘ . . . [T]he dollar amount mentioned in the report was $500 million-$800 million. The U.S. official said he also saw subsequent ‚operational reports‘ in 1995 on almost weekly arms shipments of automatic weapons, rocket-propelled grenade launchers, anti-armor rockets and TOW missiles.“ [TNR, 10/28/96] The United States played a disturbingly „hands-on“ role, with, according to the Senate report (page 19), U.S. government personnel twice conducting inspections in Croatia of missiles en route to Bosnia. Further —

„The U.S. decision to send personnel to Croatia to inspect rockets bound for Bosnia is . . . subject to varying interpretations. It may have been simply a straightforward effort to determine whether chemical weapons were being shipped into Bosnia. It was certainly, at least in part, an opportunity to examine a rocket in which the United States had some interest. But it may also have been designed to ensure that Croatia would not shut down the pipeline.“ (page 21)

The account in The New Republic points sharply to the latter explanation: „Enraged at Iran’s apparent attempt to slip super weapons past Croat monitors, the Croatian defense minister nonetheless sent the missiles on to Bosnia ‚just as Peter [i.e., Ambassador Galbraith] told us to do,‘ sources familiar with the episode said.“ [TNR, 10/28/96] In short, the Clinton Administration’s connection with the various players that made up the arms network seems to have been direct and intimate.

The Mujahedin Threat

In addition to (and working closely with) the Iranian Revolutionary Guards and VEVAK intelligence are members of numerous radical groups known for their anti-Western orientation, along with thousands of volunteer mujahedin („holy warriors“) from across the Islamic world. From the beginning of the NATO-led deployment, the Clinton Administration has given insufficient weight to military concerns regarding the mujahedin presence in Bosnia as well as the danger they pose to American personnel. Many of the fighters are concentrated in the so-called „green triangle“ (the color green symbolizes Islam) centered on the town of Zenica in the American IFOR/SFOR zone but are also found throughout the country.

The Clinton Administration has been willing to accept Sarajevo’s transparently false assurances of the departure of the foreign fighters based on the contention that they have married Bosnian women and have acquired Bosnian citizenship — and thus are no longer „foreign“! — or, having left overt military units to join „humanitarian,“ „cultural,“ or „charitable“ organizations, are no longer „fighters.“ [See „Foreign Muslims Fighting in Bosnia Considered ‚Threat‘ to U.S. Troops,“ Washington Post, 11/30/95; „Outsiders Bring Islamic Fervor To the Balkans,“ New York Times, 9/23/96; „Islamic Alien Fighters Settle in Bosnia,“ Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 9/23/96; „Mujahideen rule Bosnian villages: Threaten NATO forces, non-Muslims,“ Washington Times, 9/23/96; and Yossef Bodansky, Offensive in the Balkans (November 1995) and Some Call It Peace (August 1996), International Media Corporation, Ltd., London. Bodansky, an analyst with the House Republican Task Force on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare, is an internationally recognized authority on Islamic terrorism.] The methods employed to qualify for Bosnian citizenship are themselves problematic: „Islamic militants from Iran and other foreign countries are employing techniques such as forced marriages, kidnappings and the occupation of apartments and houses to remain in Bosnia in violation of the Dayton peace accord and may be a threat to U.S. forces.“ [„Mujaheddin Remaining in Bosnia: Islamic Militants Strongarm Civilians, Defy Dayton Plan,“ Washington Post, 7/8/96]

The threat presented by the mujahedin to IFOR (and now, to SFOR) — contingent only uponBakir Izetbegovic, the precise time their commanders in Tehran or Sarajevo should choose to activate them — has been evident from the beginning of the NATO-led deployment. For example, in February 1996 NATO forces raided a terrorist training camp near the town of Fojnica, taking into custody 11 men (8 Bosnian citizens — two of whom may have been naturalized foreign mujahedin — and three Iranian instructors); also seized were explosives „built into small children’s plastic toys, including a car, a helicopter and an ice cream cone,“ plus other weapons such as handguns, sniper rifles, grenade launchers, etc. The Sarajevo government denounced the raid, claiming the facility was an „intelligence service school“; the detainees were released promptly after NATO turned them over to local authorities. [„NATO Captures Terrorist Training Camp, Claims Iranian Involvement,“ Associated Press, 2/16/96; „Bosnian government denies camp was for terrorists,“ Reuters, 2/16/96; Bodansky Some Call It Peace, page 56] In May 1996, a previously unknown group called „Bosnian Islamic Jihad“ (jihad means „holy war“) threatened attacks on NATO troops by suicide bombers, similar to those that had recently been launched in Israel. [„Jihad Threat in Bosnia Alarms NATO,“ The European, 5/9/96]

Stepping-Stone to Europe

The intended targets of the mujahedin network in Bosnia are not limited to that country but extend to Western Europe. For example, in August 1995, the conservative Paris daily Le Figaro reported that French security services believe that „Islamic fundamentalists from Algeria have set up a security network across Europe with fighters trained in Afghan guerrilla camps and [in] southern France while some have been tested in Bosnia.“ [(London) Daily Telegraph, 8/17/95] Also, in April 1996, Belgian security arrested a number of Islamic militants, including two native Bosnians, smuggling weapons to Algerian guerrillas active in France. [Intelligence Newsletter, Paris, 5/9/96 (No. 287)] Finally, also in April 1996, a meeting of radicals aligned with HizbAllah („Party of God“), a pro-Iran group based in Lebanon, set plans for stepping up attacks on U.S. assets on all continents; among those participating was an Egyptian, Ayman al-Zawahiri, who „runs the Islamist terrorist operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina from a special headquarters in Sofia, Bulgaria. His forces are already deployed throughout Bosnia, ready to attack US and other I-FOR (NATO Implementation Force) targets.“ [„State-Sponsored Terrorism and The Rise of the HizbAllah International,“ Defense and Foreign Affairs and Strategic Policy, London, 8/31/96] Finally, in December 1996, French and Belgian security arrested several would-be terrorists trained at Iranian-run camps in Bosnia. [„Terrorism: The Bosnian Connection,“ (Paris) L’Express, 12/26/96]

The Radical Islamic Character of the Sarajevo Regime

Underlying the Clinton Administration’s misguided policy toward Iranian influence in Bosnia is a fundamental misreading of the true nature of the Muslim regime that benefitted from the Iran/Bosnia arms policy: „The most dubious of all Bosniac [i.e., Bosnian Muslim] claims pertains to the self-serving commercial that the government hopes to eventually establish a multiethnic liberal democratic society. Such ideals may appeal to a few members of Bosnia’s ruling circle as well as to a generally secular populace, but President Izetbegovic and his cabal appear to harbor much different private intentions and goals.“ [„Selling the Bosnia Myth to America: Buyer Beware,“ Lieutenant Colonel John E. Sray, USA, U.S. Army Foreign Military Studies Office, Fort Leavenworth, KS, October 1995]

The evidence that the leadership of the ruling Party of Democratic Action (SDA), and consequently, the Sarajevo-based government, has long been motivated by the principles of radical Islam is inescapable. The following three profiles are instructive:

Alija Izetbegovic: Alija Izetbegovic, current Bosnian president and head of the SDA, in 1970 authored the radical „Islamic Declaration,“ which calls for „the Islamic movement“ to start to take power as soon as it can overturn „the existing non-Muslim government . . . [and] build up a new Islamic one,“ to destroy non-Islamic institutions („There can be neither peace nor coexistence between the Islamic religion and non-Islamic social institutions“), and to create an international federation of Islamic states. [The Islamic Declaration: A Programme for the Islamization of Muslims and the Muslim Peoples, Sarajevo, in English, 1990] Izetbegovic’s radical pro-Iran associations go back decades: „At the center of the Iranian system in Europe is Bosnia-Hercegovina’s President, Alija Izetbegovic, . . . who is committed to the establishment of an Islamic Republic in Bosnia-Hercegovina.“ [„Iran’s European Springboard?“, House Republican Task Force on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare, 9/1/92] The Task Force report further describes Izetbegovic’s contacts with Iran and Libya in 1991, before the Bosnian war began; he is also noted as a „fundamentalist Muslim“ and a member of the „Fedayeen of Islam“ organization, an Iran-based radical group dating to the 1930s and which by the late 1960s had recognized the leadership of the Ayatollah Khomeini (then in exile from the Shah). Following Khomeini’s accession to power in 1979, Izetbegovic stepped-up his efforts to establish Islamic power in Bosnia and was jailed by the communists in 1983. Today, he is open and unapologetic about his links to Iran: „Perhaps the most telling detail of the [SDA’s September 1, 1996] campaign rally . . . was the presence of the Iranian Ambassador and his Bosnian and Iranian bodyguards, who sat in the shadow of the huge birchwood platform. . . . As the only foreign diplomat [present], indeed the only foreigner traveling in the President’s [i.e., Izetbegovic’s] heavily guarded motorcade of bulky four-wheel drive jeeps, he lent a silent Islamic imprimatur to the event, one that many American and European supporters of the Bosnian Government are trying hard to ignore or dismiss.“ [NYT, 9/2/96] During the summer 1996 election campaign, the Iranians delivered to him, in two suitcases, $500,000 in cash; Izetbegovic „is now ‚literally on their [i.e., the Iranians‘] payroll,‘ according to a classified report based on the CIA’s analysis of the issue.“ [LAT, 12/31/96. See also „Iran Contributed $500,000 to Bosnian President’s Election Effort, U.S. Says,“ New York Times, 1/1/97, and Washington Times, 1/2/97] Adil Zulfikarpasic, a Muslim co-founder of the SDA, broke with Izetbegovic in late 1990 due to the increasingly overt fundamentalist and pro-Iranian direction of the party. [See Milovan Djilas, Bosnjak: Adil Zulfikarpasic, Zurich, 1994]

Hassan (or Hasan) Cengic: Until recently, deputy defense minister (and now cosmetically reassigned to a potentially even more dangerous job in refugee resettlement at the behest of the Clinton Administration), Cengic, a member of a powerful clan headed by his father, Halid Cengic, is an Islamic cleric who has traveled frequently to Tehran and is deeply involved in the arms pipeline. [„Bosnian Officials Involved in Arms Trade Tied to Radical States,“ Washington Post, 9/22/96] Cengic was identified by Austrian police as a member of TWRA’s supervisory board, „a fact confirmed by its Sudanese director, Elfatih Hassanein, in a 1994 interview with Gazi Husrev Beg, an Islamic affairs magazine. Cengic later became the key Bosnian official involved in setting up a weapons pipeline from Iran. . . . Cengic . . . is a longtime associate of Izetbegovic’s. He was one of the co-defendants in Izetbegovic’s 1983 trial for fomenting Muslim nationalism in what was then Yugoslavia. Cengic was given a 10-year prison term, most of which he did not serve. In trial testimony Cengic was said to have been traveling to Iran since 1983. Cengic lived in Tehran and Istanbul during much of the war, arranging for weapons to be smuggled into Bosnia.“ [WP, 9/22/96] According to a Bosnian Croat radio profile: „Hasan’s father, Halid Cengic . . . is the main logistic expert in the Muslim army. All petrodollar donations from the Islamic world and the procurement of arms and military technology for Muslim units went through him. He made so much money out of this business that he is one of the richest Muslims today. Halid Cengic and his two sons, of whom Hasan has been more in the public spotlight, also control the Islamic wing of the intelligence agency AID [Agency for Information and Documentation]. Well informed sources in Sarajevo claim that only Hasan addresses Izetbegovic with ‚ti‘ [second person singular, used as an informal form of address] while all the others address him as ‚Mr. President,'“ a sign of his extraordinary degree of intimacy with the president. [BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10/28/96, „Radio elaborates on Iranian connection of Bosnian deputy defense minister,“ from Croat Radio Herceg-Bosna, Mostar, in Serbo-Croatian, 10/25/96, bracketed text in original] In late 1996, at the insistence of the Clinton Administration, Hassan Cengic was reassigned to refugee affairs. However, in his new capacity he may present an even greater hazard to NATO forces in Bosnia, in light of past incidents such as the one that took place near the village of Celic in November 1996. At that time, in what NATO officers called part of a pattern of „military operations in disguise,“ American and Russian IFOR troops were caught between Muslims and Serbs as the Muslims, some of them armed, attempted to encroach on the cease-fire line established by Dayton; commented a NATO spokesman: „We believe this to be a deliberate, orchestrated and provocative move to circumvent established procedures for the return of refugees.“ [„Gunfire Erupts as Muslims Return Home,“ Washington Post, 11/13/96]

Dzemal Merdan: „The office of Brig. Gen. Dzemal Merdan is an ornate affair, equipped with an elaborately carved wooden gazebo ringed with red velvet couches and slippers for his guests. A sheepskin prayer mat lies in the corner, pointing toward Mecca. The most striking thing in the chamber is a large flag. It is not the flag of Bosnia, but of Iran. Pinned with a button of the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Iran’s late Islamic leader, the flag occupies pride of place in Merdan’s digs — displayed in the middle of the gazebo for every visitor to see. Next to it hangs another pennant, that of the Democratic Action Party, the increasingly nationalist Islamic organization of President Alija Izetbegovic that dominates Bosnia’s Muslim region. . . . Merdan’s position highlights the American dilemma. As head of the office of training and development of the Bosnian army, he is a key liaison figure in the U.S. [arm and train] program. . . . But Merdan, Western sources say, also has another job — as liaison with foreign Islamic fighters here since 1992 and promoter of the Islamic faith among Bosnia’s recruits. Sources identified Merdan as being instrumental in the creation of a brigade of Bosnian soldiers, called the 7th Muslim Brigade, that is heavily influenced by Islam and trained by fighters from Iran’s Revolutionary Guards. He has also launched a program, these sources say, to build mosques on military training grounds to teach Islam to Bosnian recruits. In addition, he helped establish training camps in Bosnia where Revolutionary Guards carried out their work.“ [„Arming the Bosnians: U.S. Program Would Aid Force Increasingly Linked to Iran,“ Washington Post, 1/26/96, emphasis added] General Merdan is a close associate of both Izetbegovic and Cengic; the central region around Zenica, which was „completely militarized in the first two years of the war“ under the control of Merdan’s mujahedin, is „under total control of the Cengic family.“ [„Who Rules Bosnia and Which Way,“ (Sarajevo) Slobodna Bosna, 11/17/96, FBIS translation; Slobodna Bosna is one of the few publications in Muslim-held areas that dares to criticize the policies and personal corruption of the ruling SDA clique.] Merdan’s mujahedin were accused by their erstwhile Croat allies of massacring more than 100 Croats near Zenica in late 1993. [„Bosnian Croats vow to probe war crimes by Moslems,“ Agence France Presse, 5/12/95]

The Islamization of the Bosnian Army

In cooperation with the foreign Islamic presence, the Izetbegovic regime has revamped its security and military apparatus to reflect its Islamic revolutionary outlook, including the creation of mujahedin units throughout the army; some members of these units have assumed the guise of a shaheed (a „martyr,“ the Arabic term commonly used to describe suicide bombers), marked by their white garb, representing a shroud. While these units include foreign fighters naturalized in Bosnia, most of the personnel are now Bosnian Muslims trained and indoctrinated by Iranian and other foreign militants — which also makes it easier for the Clinton Administration to minimize the mujahedin threat, because few of them are „foreigners.“
Bakir Izetbegovic,
Prior to 1996, there were three principal mujahedin units in the Bosnian army, the first two of which are headquartered in the American IFOR/SFOR zone: (1) the 7th Muslim Liberation Brigade of the 3rd Corps, headquartered in Zenica; (2) the 9th Muslim Liberation Brigade of the 2nd Corps, headquartered in Travnik (the 2nd Corps is based in Tuzla); and (3) the 4th Muslim Liberation Brigade of the 4th Corps, headquartered in Konjic (in the French zone). [Bodansky, Some Call It Peace, page 40] Particularly ominous, many members of these units have donned the guise of martyrs, indicating their willingness to sacrifice themselves in the cause of Islam. Commenting on an appearance of soldiers from the 7th Liberation Brigade, in Zenica in December 1995, Bodansky writes: „Many of the fighters . . . were dressed in white coveralls over their uniforms. Officially, these were ‚white winter camouflage,‘ but the green headbands [bearing Koranic verses] these warriors were wearing left no doubt that these were actually Shaheeds‘ shrouds.“ [Some Call It Peace, page 12] The same demonstration was staged before the admiring Iranian ambassador and President Izetbegovic in September 1996, when white winter garb could only be symbolic, not functional. [NYT, 9/2/96] By June 1996, ten more mujahedin brigades had been established, along with numerous smaller „special units“ dedicated to covert and terrorist operations; while foreigners are present in all of these units, most of the soldiers are now native Bosnian Muslims. [Some Call It Peace, pages 42-46]

In addition to these units, there exists another group known as the Handzar („dagger“ or „scimitar“) Division, described by Bodansky as a „praetorian guard“ for President Izetbegovic. „Up to 6000-strong, the Handzar division glories in a fascist culture. They see themselves as the heirs of the SS Handzar division, formed by Bosnian Muslims in 1943 to fight for the Nazis. Their spiritual model was Mohammed Amin al-Husseini, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem who sided with Hitler. According to UN officers, surprisingly few of those in charge of the Handzars . . . seem to speak good Serbo-Croatian. ‚Many of them are Albanian, whether from Kosovo [the Serb province where Albanians are the majority] or from Albania itself.‘ They are trained and led by veterans from Afghanistan and Pakistan, say UN sources.“ [„Albanians and Afghans fight for the heirs to Bosnia’s SS past,“ (London) Daily Telegraph, 12/29/93, bracketed text in original]

Self-Inflicted Atrocities

Almost since the beginning of the Bosnian war in the spring of 1992, there have been persistent reports — readily found in the European media but little reported in the United States — that civilian deaths in Muslim-held Sarajevo attributed to the Bosnian Serb Army were in some cases actually inflicted by operatives of the Izetbegovic regime in an (ultimately successful) effort to secure American intervention on Sarajevo’s behalf. These allegations include instances of sniping at civilians as well as three major explosions, attributed to Serbian mortar fire, that claimed the lives of dozens of people and, in each case, resulted in the international community’s taking measures against the Muslims‘ Serb enemies. (The three explosions were: (1) the May 27, 1992, „breadline massacre,“ which was reported to have killed 16 people and which resulted in economic sanctions on the Bosnian Serbs and rump Yugoslavia; (2) the February 5, 1994, Markale „market massacre,“ killing 68 and resulting in selective NATO air strikes and an ultimatum to the Serbs to withdraw their heavy weapons from the area near Sarajevo; and (3) the August 28, 1995 „second market massacre,“ killing 37 and resulting in large-scale NATO air strikes, eventually leading to the Dayton agreement and the deployment of IFOR.) When she was asked about such allegations (with respect to the February 1994 explosion) then-U.N. Ambassador and current Secretary of State-designate Madeleine Albright, in a stunning non sequitur, said: „It’s very hard to believe any country would do this to their own people, and therefore, although we do not exactly know what the facts are, it would seem to us that the Serbs are the ones that probably have a great deal of responsibility.“ [„Senior official admits to secret U.N. report on Sarajevo massacre,“ Deutsch Presse-Agentur, 6/6/96, emphasis added]

The fact that such a contention is difficult to believe does not mean it is not true. Not only did the incidents lead to the result desired by Sarajevo (Western action against the Bosnian Serbs), their staging by the Muslims would be entirely in keeping with the moral outlook of Islamic radicalism, which has long accepted the deaths of innocent (including Muslim) bystanders killed in terrorist actions. According to a noted analyst: „The dictum that the end justifies the means is adopted by all fundamentalist organizations in their strategies for achieving political power and imposing on society their own view of Islam. What is important in every action is its niy’yah, its motive. No means need be spared in the service of Islam as long as one takes action with a pure niy’yah.“ [Amir Taheri, Holy Terror, Bethesda, MD, 1987] With the evidence that the Sarajevo leadership does in fact have a fundamentalist outlook, it is unwarranted to dismiss cavalierly the possibility of Muslim responsibility. Among some of the reports:

Sniping: „French peacekeeping troops in the United Nations unit trying to curtail Bosnian Serb sniping at civilians in Sarajevo have concluded that until mid-June some gunfire also came from Government soldiers deliberately shooting at their own civilians. After what it called a ‚definitive‘ investigation, a French marine unit that patrols against snipers said it traced sniper fire to a building normally occupied by Bosnian [i.e., Muslim] soldiers and other security forces. A senior French officer said, ‚We find it almost impossible to believe, but we are sure that it is true.'“ [„Investigation Concludes Bosnian Government Snipers Shot at Civilians,“ New York Times, 8/1/95]

The 1992 „Breadline Massacre“: „United Nations officials and senior Western military officers believe some of the worst killings in Sarajevo, including the massacre of at least 16 people in a bread queue, were carried out by the city’s mainly Muslim defenders — not Serb besiegers — as a propaganda ploy to win world sympathy and military intervention. . . . Classified reports to the UN force commander, General Satish Nambiar, concluded . . . that Bosnian forces loyal to President Alija Izetbegovic may have detonated a bomb. ‚We believe it was a command-detonated explosion, probably in a can,‘ a UN official said then. ‚The large impact which is there now is not necessarily similar or anywhere near as large as we came to expect with a mortar round landing on a paved surface.“ [„Muslims ’slaughter their own people‘,“ (London) The Independent, 8/22/92] „Our people tell us there were a number of things that didn’t fit. The street had been blocked off just before the incident. Once the crowd was let in and had lined up, the media appeared but kept their distance. The attack took place, and the media were immediately on the scene.“ [Major General Lewis MacKenzie, Peacekeeper: The Road to Sarajevo, Vancouver, BC, 1993, pages 193-4; Gen. MacKenzie, a Canadian, had been commander of the U.N. peacekeeping force in Sarajevo.]

The 1994 Markale „Market Massacre“: „French television reported last night that the United Nations investigation into the market-place bombing in Sarajevo two weeks ago had established beyond doubt that the mortar shell that killed 68 people was fired from inside Bosnian [Muslim] lines.“ [„UN tracks source of fatal shell,“ (London) The Times, 2/19/94] „For the first time, a senior U.N. official has admitted the existence of a secret U.N. report that blames the Bosnian Moslems for the February 1994 massacre of Moslems at a Sarajevo market. . . . After studying the crater left by the mortar shell and the distribution of shrapnel, the report concluded that the shell was fired from behind Moslem lines.“ The report, however, was kept secret; the context of the wire story implies that U.S. Ambasador Albright may have been involved in its suppression. [DPA, 6/6/96] For a fuller discussion of the conflicting claims, see „Anatomy of a massacre,“ Foreign Policy, 12/22/94, by David Binder; Binder, a veteran New York Times reporter in Yugoslavia, had access to the suppressed report. Bodansky categorically states that the bomb „was actually a special charge designed and built with help from HizbAllah [„Party of God,“ a Beirut-based pro-Iranian terror group] experts and then most likely dropped from a nearby rooftop onto the crowd of shoppers. Video cameras at the ready recorded this expertly-staged spectacle of gore, while dozens of corpses of Bosnian Muslim troops killed in action (exchanged the day before in a ‚body swap‘ with the Serbs) were paraded in front of cameras to raise the casualty counts.“ [Offensive in the Balkans, page 62]

The 1995 „Second Market Massacre“: „British ammunition experts serving with the United Nations in Sarajevo have challenged key ‚evidence‘ of the Serbian atrocity that triggered the devastating Nato bombing campaign which turned the tide of the Bosnian war.“ The Britons‘ analysis was confirmed by French analysts but their findings were „dismissed“ by „a senior American officer“ at U.N. headquarters in Sarajevo. [„Serbs ’not guilty‘ of massacre: Experts warned US that mortar was Bosnian,“ (London) The Times, 10/1/95] A „crucial U.N. report [stating Serb responsibility for] the market massacre is a classified secret, but four specialists — a Russian, a Canadian and two Americans — have raised serious doubts about its conclusion, suggesting instead that the mortar was fired not by the Serbs but by Bosnian government forces.“ A Canadian officer „added that he and fellow Canadian officers in Bosnia were ‚convinced that the Muslim government dropped both the February 5, 1994, and the August 28, 1995, mortar shells on the Sarajevo markets.'“ An unidentified U.S. official „contends that the available evidence suggests either ‚the shell was fired at a very low trajectory, which means a range of a few hundred yards — therefore under [Sarajevo] government control,‘ or ‚a mortar shell converted into a bomb was dropped from a nearby roof into the crowd.'“ [„Bosnia’s bombers,“ The Nation, 10/2/95]. At least some high-ranking French and perhaps other Western officials believed the Muslims responsible; after having received that account from government ministers and two generals, French magazine editor Jean Daniel put the question directly to Prime Minister Edouard Balladur: „‚They [i.e., the Muslims] have committed this carnage on their own people?‘ I exclaimed in consternation. ‚Yes,‘ confirmed the Prime Minister without hesitation, ‚but at least they have forced NATO to intervene.'“ [„No more lies about Bosnia,“ Le Nouvel Observateur, 8/31/95, translated in Chronicles: A Magazine of American Culture, January 1997]

Suppression of Enemies

As might be expected, one manifestation of the radical Islamic orientation of the Izetbegovic government is increasing curtailment of the freedoms of the remaining non-Muslims (Croats and Serbs) in the Muslim-held zone. While there are similar pressures on minorities in the Serb- and Croat-held parts of Bosnia, in the Muslim zone they have a distinct Islamic flavor. For example, during the 1996-1997 Christmas and New Year holiday season, Muslim militants attempted to intimidate not only Muslims but Christians from engaging in what had become common holiday practices, such as gift-giving, putting up Christmas or New Year’s trees, and playing the local Santa Claus figure, Grandfather Frost (Deda Mraz). [„The Holiday, All Wrapped Up; Bosnian Muslims Take Sides Over Santa,“ Washington Post, 12/26/96] In general:

„Even in Sarajevo itself, always portrayed as the most prominent multi-national community in Bosnia, pressure, both psychological and real, is impelling non-Bosniaks [i.e., non-Muslims] to leave. Some measures are indirect, such as attempts to ban the sale of pork and the growing predominance of [Bosniak] street names. Other measures are deliberate efforts to apply pressure. Examples include various means to make non-Bosniaks leave the city. Similar pressures, often with more violent expression and occasionally with overt official participation, are being used throughout Bosnia.“ [„Bosnia’s Security and U.S. Policy in the Next Phase: A Policy Paper, International Research and Exchanges Board, November 1996]

In addition, President Izetbegovic’s party, the SDA, has launched politically-motivated attacks on moderate Muslims both within the SDA and in rival parties. For example, in the summer of 1996 former Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic, (a Muslim, and son of the former imam at the main Sarajevo mosque) was set upon and beaten by SDA militants. Silajdzic claimed Izetbegovic himself was behind the attacks. [NYT, 9/2/96] Irfan Mustafic, a Muslim who co-founded the SDA, is a member of the Bosnian parliament and was president of the SDA’s executive council in Srebrenica when it fell to Bosnian Serb forces; he was taken prisoner but later released. Because of several policy disagreements with Izetbegovic and his close associates, Mustafic was shot and seriously wounded in Srebrenica by Izetbegovic loyalists. [(Sarajevo) Slobodna Bosna, 7/14/96] Finally, one incident sums up both the ruthlessness of the Sarajevo establishment in dealing with their enemies as well as their international radical links:

„A special Bosnian army unit headed by Bakir Izetbegovic, the Bosnian president’s son, murdered a Bosnian general found shot to death in Belgium last week, a Croatian newspaper reported . . . citing well-informed sources. The Vjesnik newspaper, controlled by the government, said the assassination of Yusuf Prazina was carried out by five members of a commando unit called ‚Delta‘ and headed by Ismet Bajramovic also known as Celo. The paper said that three members of the Syrian-backed Palestinian movement Saika had Prazina under surveillance for three weeks before one of them, acting as an arms dealer, lured him into a trap in a car park along the main highway between Liege in eastern Belgium and the German border town of Aachen. Prazina, 30, nicknamed Yuka, went missing early last month. He was found Saturday with two bullet holes to the head. ‚The necessary logistical means to carry out the operation were provided by Bakir Izetbegovic, son of Alija Izetbegovic, who left Sarajevo more than six months ago,‘ Vjesnik said. It added that Bakir Izetbegovic ‚often travels between Brussels, Paris, Frankfurt, Baghdad, Tehran and Ankara, by using Iraqi and Pakistani passports,‘ and was in Belgium at the time of the assassination. Hasan Cengic, head of logistics for the army in Bosnia-Hercegovina, was ‚personally involved in the assassination of Yuka Prazina,‘ the paper said.“ [Agence France Presse, 1/5/94]

Conclusion

The Clinton Administration’s blunder in giving the green light to the Iranian arms pipeline was based, among other errors, on a gross misreading of the true nature and goals of the Izetbegovic regime in Sarajevo. It calls to mind the similar mistake of the Carter Administration, which in 1979 began lavish aid to the new Sandinista government in Nicaragua in the hopes that (if the United States were friendly enough) the nine comandantes would turn out to be democrats, not communists, despite abundant evidence to the contrary. By the time the Reagan Administration finally cut off the dollar spigot in 1981, the comandantes — or the „nine little Castros,“ as they were known locally — had fully entrenched themselves in power.

To state that the Clinton Administration erred in facilitating the penetration of the Iranians and other radical elements into Europe would be a breathtaking understatement. A thorough reexamination of U.S. policy and goals in the region is essential. In particular, addressing the immediate threat to U.S. troops in Bosnia, exacerbated by the extention of the IFOR/SFOR mission, should be a major priority of the 105th Congress.  https://archive.is/x2i4i#selection-196.1-1013.430